voc.txt

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jgal1
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voc.txt
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2010-03-07 19:57:54
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maternity vocab
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vocabularies to know ob-gyn
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  1. Accelerations
    Periodic increase in the baseline fetal heart rate. (brief, temporary increases in FHR of at least 15 beats/min above the baseline. They usually occur with fetal movements just as the heart rate increases in adults during exercise.)
  2. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
    An antigen present in the human fetus. Elevated levels in the amniotic or adult serum during pregnancy may indicate neural tube defect; decreased levels may indicate Down Syndrome.
  3. Amnioinfusion
    Infusion of warmed isotonic saline into the uterine cavity to reduce umbilical cord compression; also performed to flush meconium out of the cavity to reduce the risk of fetal aspiration.
  4. Deceleration
    Decrease in the fetal heart rate
  5. Early Deceleration
    Periodic change in fetal heart rate patern caused by head compression; deceleration has a uniform appearance and early onset in relation to the maternal contraction.
  6. External Fetal Monitoring
    Ultrasound transducer & tacodynamometer are secured to the woman's abdomen. When placed correctly the sound waves of the fetal heart are picked up by the electric monitor. Uterine contractions monitored for frequncy/duration, not intensity externally.
  7. Fetal Pulse Oximetry
    Fetal oxygen saturation measured by a transcervical catheter positioned against the the fetal cheek. Used when the amniotic membranes are ruptured and the cervix is at least 2 cm dilated.
  8. Internal Fetal Monitoring
    It requires ruptured amniotic membranes and at least 2 cm dilated. Fetal presentiong part must be known and down near cervix. Spiral electrode inserted into vagina and placed by clockwise rotation, until attached to presenting part (head or buttocks).
  9. Internal EFM
    Wires extend from electrode attached to leg plate and then fetal monitor. Pressure transducer is place in utero cavity to monitor contractions and gives pressure reading.
  10. Late Decelerations
    Frequently begin at approximately the peak of the contraction & end after the contraction ends. They are often associated with uteroplacental insufficiency. Persistant or recurrent late decelerations may indicate hypoxia or lack of oxygen to the fetus.
  11. Nonreassuring Heart Rate Pattern
    A fetal heart rate pattern that indicates fetal distress, such as late decelerations, bradycardia, or absence of variability.
  12. Reassuring Heart Rate Pattern
    Reflects adequate fetal oxygenation.
  13. Variable Decelerations
    Involve a transient drop in FHR before, during, or after uterine contraction. They are related to a brief compression of the umbilical cord. The decelerations are abrupt and often associated with accelerations before or after deceleration.
  14. What is the purpose of the female reproductive system?
    • Reproduction, secretes hormones that support secondary sex characteristic changes and secretes hormones that sustain pregnancy
    • The Mons Pubis, Labia Majora, Labia Minora, Bartholin's Glands, Clitoris, Vaginal Orifice, Perineum and Urinary Orifice make up what? External Genitalia
  15. What is the fatty tissue that covers and cushions the symphysis pubis?
    Mons Pubis
  16. What are the two folds of skin containing fatty tissue and is covered with hair?
    Labia Majora
  17. What are the two thin folds of tissue located within the folds of the labia majora and extends from the clitoris downward toward the perineum?
    Labia Minora
  18. What is located on either side of the vaginal orifice and secretes a mucous substance that lubricates the vagina?
    Bartholin's Glands
  19. What is the short, elongated organ composed of erectile tissue that is located just behind the upper junction of the labia minora and is homologous to the penis in the male? Clitoris
  20. What is part of the vulva but not a true part of the female reproductive system?
    Urinary Orifice
  21. What is located in the lower portion of the vestibule and is below the urinary meatus?
    Vaginal Orifice
  22. What is the area between the vaginal orifice and the anus that consists of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support for the pelvic structures?
    Perineum
  23. What is the muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva and rests between the bladder and rectum and also has stretchable folds of inner lining known as rugae which is capable of expanding during childbirth?
    Vagina
  24. What is a pear-shaped, hollow, muscular organ that houses the fertilized implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy and is the source of monthly menstrual flow if pregnancy does not occur?
    Uterus
  25. What are the three identifiable parts of the uterus?
    Fundus, Body and cervix
  26. What is the small dome-shaped upper portion of the uterus?
    Fundus
  27. What is the central portion of the uterus?
    Body
  28. What is the narrower, necklike portion at the lower end of the uterus?
    Cervix
  29. What are the three layers of the uterus wall?
    Perimetrium, Myometrium and Endometrium
  30. What is the outer most layer of the uterus wall?
    Perimetrium
  31. What is the middle muscular layer of the uteris wall?
    Myometrium
  32. What is the innermost layer of the uterus wall that is highly vascular?
    Endometrium
  33. What serve as passageway for the ova as they exit the ovary enroute to the uterus and are also known as uterine tubes or oviducts?
    Fallopian Tubes
  34. What are the fingerlike projections on the end of each fallopian tube called?
    Fimbriae
  35. What are almond shaped, held in place by ligaments and are also known as the female gonads? Ovaries
  36. What are the ovaries responsible for?
    Producing mature ova and releasing them every month, producing hormones necessary for normal growth and development of the female and producing hormones to maintain pregnancy should it occur
  37. What are the vagina, uterus, wall of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries make up?
    Internal Genitalia
  38. What are known as breasts and consist of glandular tissue with supporting adipose tissue and fibrous connective tissue that are covered with skin?
    Mammary Glands
  39. What are the mammary glands responsible for?
    Production of milk
  40. What are the two structures of the breasts?
    Nipple and Areola
  41. What are the three types of breast tissues?
    Adipose, Connective and Glandular
  42. What are narrow tubular structures of the breast that transport milk to the nipple for breastfeeding?
    Lactiferous Ducts
  43. What is the period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins and secondary sex characteristic changes occur?
    Puberty
  44. What are days 1 - 5 of the menstrual cycle known as?
    Menstrual Phase
  45. What are days 6 - 12 of the menstrual cycle known as?
    Postmenstrual Phase
  46. What are days 13 - 14 of the menstrual cycle known as?
    Ovulatory Phase
  47. What are days 15 - 28 of the menstrual cycle known as?
    Premenstrual Phase
  48. Which phase does the menstrual flow start and last for 3 - 5 days?
    Menstrual Phase
  49. Which phase is the interval between menses and ovulation?
    Postmenstrual Phase
  50. Which phase does the graafian follicle rupture releasing the mature ovum into the pelvic cavity known as ovulation?
    Ovulatory Phase
  51. Which phase is between the ovulatory phase and the onset of menstrual flow?
    Premenstrual Phase
  52. What is the medical term for absence of menstrual flow?
    Amenorrhea
  53. What is the medical term for painful menstrual flow?
    Dysmenotthea
  54. What is the medical term for abnormally long or very heavy menstrual periods?
    Menorrhagia
  55. What is the medical term for uterine bleeding at times other than the menstrual period?
    Metrorrhagia
  56. What is the medical term for abnormally light or infrequent menstruation?
    Oligomenorrhea
  57. What is the medical term for abstaining from having vaginal intercourse?
    Abstinence
  58. What is the medical term for a pill that contains synthetic forms of the hormones estrogen and progesterone?
    Oral Contraceptives (Birth control pills)
  59. What is a form of contraception administered intramuscularly approximately once every 12 weeks?
    Depo-Provera Injection
  60. What is a monthly contraceptive injection?
    Lunelle Injection
  61. What is a small plastic T-shaped device inserted into the uterus to prevent implantation of an ovum into the uterus?
    Intrauterine Device
  62. What are methods of birth control that place physical barriers between the cervix and the sperm?
    Barrier Methods
  63. What form of birth control is surgically cutting and tying the fallopian tubes to prevent passage of the ova or sperm through the tubes also known as female sterilization?
    Tubal Ligation
  64. What are used in the most common tubal tie but its failure rate is 6 out of 1000 will end up pregnant?
    Flishy clips
  65. What type of birth control surgically cuts and ties the vas deferens?
    Vasectomy
  66. What are swollen fluid-filled lumps that develop from a blockage, commonly found in women of reproductive age and approximately in 2% of all women?
    Bartholin Cyst
  67. What type of catheter is used when draining a Bartholin cyst?
    Ward Catheter
  68. What is the medical term for a malignant tumor of the breast tissue and is the most common type that originates in the mammary ducts?
    Carcinoma of the breast
  69. What is the medical term for a malignant tumor of the cervix and symptoms include bleeding between menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, after menopause and an abnormal Pap smear?
    Cervical Carcinoma
  70. What is the medical term for an inflammation of the cervix that may be caused by infection from certain STDs, injury to the cervix from a foreign object inserted in the vagina, from birth control devices or by cancer?
    Cervicitis
  71. What is the medical term for herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina caused by weakened or strained muscles also known as fallen bladder?
    Cystocele
  72. What is the medical term for a malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus and is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system? Endometrial Carcinoma
  73. What is the medical term for presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the endometrium and this misplaced tissue can cause pain, infertility and very heavy periods?
    Endometriosis
  74. What is the medical term for a presence of single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts and is the most common cause of lumpy breasts in women and affects more than 60% of women?
    Fibrocystic Breast Disease
  75. What is the medical term for a benign, fibrous tumor of the uterus, is the most common gynecological tumor in women and the most common reason for a women to have a hysterectomy?
    Fibroid Tumor
  76. What is the medical term for benign, smooth muscle tumor of the uterus, may lead to excessive menstrual bleeding and may lead to infertility?
    Leiomyoma
  77. What is the medical term for a malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occuring after menopause and often there are no symptoms and is rarely detected in early stage?
    Ovarian Carcinoma
  78. What is the medical term for benign, globular sacs that form on or near the ovaries some are harmless while others pose an imminent threat to your health?
    Ovarian Cysts
  79. What is the medical term for one of the leading causes of infertility in women that affects 5 to 10% of the entire female population in the US and is characterized by obesity, missed or irregular periods and excess hair growth?
    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  80. What is the medical term for an infection of the fallopian tubes, also known as salpingitis, most common preventable cause of infertility and can scar the fallopian tubes which can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain and other problems?
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  81. What are the two most common causes of PID?
    Gonorrhea and Chlamydia but other bacteria can cause it as well
  82. Who are at a higher risk of getting PID?
    Sexually active and 25 or younger, have more than one sex partner and women who douche
  83. What is the one thing that all OB/GYN doctors tell women not to do and why?
    Douche, because it pushes everything up into your reproductive organs and makes things worse
  84. What are the aceptable ways to clean your vagina according medical specialists?
    Only water and if you feel like you must use something other than water (which you shouldn't) only use the baby wash that has no smells typically a yellow bottle or products like summer eves that is designed for cleaning with no perfumes
  85. Why do you only need to wash the vagina with water?
    because it has its own cleaning system that happens naturally
  86. What is the best way to restore the Ph balance of the vagina?
    Water and vinegar or a product design to do that with no perfumes
  87. What is the number one cause of vaginal odor?
    Washing the vagina with soap and if the soap has a fragrance add to it the more it will cause an odor
  88. What is the medical term for a rare, life-threating bacterial infection that has been most often associated with use of superabsorbent tampons and occasionally with the use of contraceptive sponges and is most often caused by staphylococcus aureus?
    Toxic Shock Syndrome
  89. What is the medical term for inflammation of the vagina and the vulva and its cause is usually a change in the normal balance of vaginal bacteria or an infection?
    Vaginitis
  90. What are the two types of vaginitis?
    Bacterial and Yeast
  91. What is the medical term for an infection that is caused by a parasite and is commonly transmitted by sexual intercourse and can cause a greenish yellow sometimes frothy discharge?
    Trichomoniasis
  92. What is the medical term for vaginal tissues that become thinner and frier, which may lead to itching, burning and pain and results from reduced estrogen levels after menopause?
    Atrophic Vaginitis
  93. What is the medical term for an invasive procedure in which a needle is instered into an area of the body to withdraw a tissue or fluid sample for microscopic examination and diagnosis?
    Aspiration Biopsy
  94. What is the medical term for a procedure in which the woman examines her breasts and surrounding tissue for evidence of any changes that could indicate the possibility of malignancy?
    Breast Self-Examination
  95. What is the medical term for visual examination of the vagina and cervix with a scope?
    Colposcopy
  96. What is the medical term for a surgical removal of a cone-shaped segment of the cervix for diagnosis or treatment, used to diagnose and treat precancerous changes in the cervix?
    Conization
  97. What is the medical term for destruction of tissue by rapid freezing with substances such as liqiud nitrogen and is used to treat cervicitis and cervical dysplasia?
    Cryosurgery
  98. What is the medical term for a surgical puncture through the posterior wall of the vagina into the cul-de-sac to withdraw intraperitoneal fluid for examination?
    Culdocentesis
  99. What is the medical term for dilatation or widening of the cervical canal with a dilator, followed by scrapping of the uterine lining with a curette?
    Dilation and Curettage (D & C)
  100. What is the medical term for an invasive test for obtaining a sample of endometrial tissue with a small curette for examination?
    Endometrial Biopsy
  101. What is the medical term for an x-ray of the uterus and the fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures?
    Hysterosalpingography
  102. What is the medical term for a process of viewing the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope?
    Laparoscopy
  103. What is the medical term for a process of examining with x-ray the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt?
    Mammography
  104. What is the medical term for a microscopic examination of cells scrapped from within the cervix, around the cervix and from the posterior part of the vagina to test for cervical cancer?
    Papanicolaou Smear (PAP Smear)
  105. What type of exam detects diseases of female reproductive tract and a pap smear is performed?
    Gynecological Exam
  106. What is the medical term for care of mother and fetus during pregnancy and puerperium the 6 weeks following delivery?
    Obstetrics
  107. Which visit requires the longest visit, prevention of complications, history and physical, pelvic measurements and laboratory tests?
    Initial Prenatal Visit
  108. What is the medical term for total number of pregnancies, including the current one, regardless of the outcome?
    Gravida
  109. What is the medical term for the number of pregnancies carried to the point of viability, regardless of outcome and does not included the current pregnancy?
    Para
  110. What procedures will be performed on subsequent prenatal visits?
    Vital signs, U/A, CBC. Measurement of fundus, and test and procedures may be performed based on history or standard protocol
  111. What is the medical term for union of a sperm and a mature ovum?
    Fertilization or Conception
  112. Where does the conception take places?
    In the outer 3rd of the fallopian tube
  113. What is the intitial name for fertilized ovum?
    Zygote
  114. What is the name of product of conception from second through 8th week of pregnancy?
    Embryo
  115. What is the name of product of conception from 9th week through duration of gestational period?
    Fetus
  116. What is the medical term for a strong, thin-walled membranous sac that envelops and protects the growing fetus?
    Amniotic Sac
  117. What is the outer layer of the Amniotic sac called?
    Chorion
  118. What is the inner layer of the amniotic sac called?
    Amnion
  119. What cushions and protects the fetus during pregnancy?
    Amniotic fluid
  120. What is a temporary organ of pregnancy that provides for fetal respiration, nutrition, excretion, functions as an endocrine gland by producing hormones HCG, estrogen, progesterone and human placental lactogen?
    Placenta
  121. Which part of the placenta is attached to the wall of the uterus and has a beefy red appearance?
    Maternal Side
  122. Which side of the placenta has a shiny, slightly grayish appearance, contains arteries and veins that intertwine to form an umbilical cord and the umbilical cord arises from center of placenta and attaches to the umbilicus of the fetus?
    Fetal Side
  123. What is a small, pear-shaped organ before pregnancy but grows to accommodate the fetus, placenta, amniotic sac and fluid during pregnancy?
    Uterus
  124. What is the medical term for when the cervix and vagina take on a bluish-violet hue due to local venous congestion?
    Chadwick's Sign
  125. What is the medical term for when the cervix softens in consistency in preparation for childbirth? G
    oodell's Sign
  126. What cause increased vaginal discharge and heavy shedding of vaginal cells?
    Increase of glycogen
  127. What is the medical term for thick, white vaginal discharge during pregnancy?
    Leukorrhea
  128. What are the 4 changes in the breast during pregnancy?
    Increase in size and shape, nipples increase in size and become more erect, areola becomes larger and darker, and colostrum is secreted
  129. What are the changes of blood pressure during pregnancy?
    May experience hypotension during second and thrid trimesters and weight of the uterus presses against descending aorta and inferior vena cava
  130. What change in urination happens in the 1st trimester?
    Urinary frequency due to increasing size of uterus creates pressure on the bladder
  131. What is the urination change in the 2nd trimester?
    Uterus rises up out of the pelvis and pressure on the bladder is relieved
  132. What is the urination change in the 3rd trimester?
    Frequency returns due to pressure of the baby's head on the bladder
  133. What is the medical term for the manner of walking in which the feet are wide apart and the walk resembles that of a duck due to softening of the pelvic joints and relaxing of the ligaments and the center of gravity is offset?
    Waddling Gait
  134. What is the medical term for brown patches seen on the forehead, cheeks and bridge of nose known as the mask of pregnancy? Chloasma
  135. What is the medical term for the darkened vertical midline between the fundus and the symphysis pubis on the abdomen?
    Linea Nigra
  136. What is the medical term for stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs and breasts that occour during pregnancy?
    Stria Gravidarum
  137. What is the recommended range of weight gain during pregnancy?
    25 to 30 pounds
  138. What is the pattern of weight gain for a pregnancy?
    1st - 3rd month = 3 - 4 pounds 4th - 9th month = 1 pound per week
  139. What is the medical term for irregular contractions of the uterus and may occur throughout the pregnancy and are relatively painless?
    Braxton Hicks Contractions
  140. When can the fetal heartbeat be detected?
    approximately 10 weeks with an ultrasound and 18 - 20 with a fetoscope
  141. What is the range of the fetus heartbeat?
    120 - 180 bpm
  142. When can an embryo or fetus be detected by ultrasound?
    as early as 5 - 6 weeks
  143. When can fetal movements be felt by the examiner via palpable?
    2nd trimester
  144. What does EDC mean?
    Expected Date of Confinement
  145. What does EDD mean?
    Expected Date of Delivery
  146. What does EDB mean?
    Expected Date of Birth
  147. Which rule for calculation of date is the following: subtract 3 months from beginning of last menstrual period and the add 7 days to that date?
    Nagele's Rule
  148. What is the termination of a pregnancy before the fetus has reached a viable age, that is, an age at which the fetus could live outside of the uterine environment?
    Abortion
  149. What is better known as a miscarriage?
    Spontaneous Abortion
  150. What is carried out by the to terminate pregnancy?
    Induced Abortion
  151. What is an abnormal implantation of a fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity also called a tubal pregnancy?
    Ectopic Pregnancy
  152. What is a surgical incision through the perineum made to enlarge the vagina and assist childbirth?
    Episiotomy
  153. What is a disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during pregnancy?
    Gestational Diabetes
  154. What is an abnormal condition that begins as a pregnancy and deviates from normal development very early and does not produce a fetus and chorionic villi of placenta change to a mass of cysts resembling a bunch of grapes?
    Hydatidiform Mole
  155. What is a condition in which the cervical os dilates before the fetus reaches term without labor or uterine contractions?
    Incompetent Cervix
  156. What is the medical term for when the placenta may cover os?
    Placenta Previa
  157. What is the medical term for when the placenta separates from the uterine lining?
    Placenta Abruptio
  158. What is the development of hypertension during pregnancy in women which had normal blood pressure before?
    Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension
  159. Which of the three PID developes after 20 wks gestation with no signs of edema or proteinuria?
    Gestational Hypertension
  160. Which PID developes after 20 wks gestation with proteinuria or edema?
    Pre-Eclampsia
  161. Which PID is the most severe form and is evidenced by presence of seizures?
    Eclampsia
  162. What causes the mother's body to develop antibodies that will destroy the Rh positive blood?
    Rh Incompatibility
  163. What is the medical term for vaginal discharge that is a mixture of thick mucus and pinkor dark brown blood and it occurs as a result of the softening, dilation and thinning of the cervix in preparation for childbirth?
    Bloody Show
  164. What is the medical term for the settling of the fetal head into the pelvis that occurs a few weeks prior to the onset of labor?
    Lightening
  165. What is the medical term for rupture of the fetal membranes, releasing the amniotic fluid often referred to as water broke?
    Rupture of the Amniotic Sac
  166. Which type of contractions are irregular, not too frequent, shorter duration, felt in abdomen, felt in groin area, walking may relieve or decrease contractions, dilatation and effacement doesn't change and not too intense?
    False Labor Contractions
  167. What type of contractions are regular, more frequent, longer duration, felt in lower back, radiates to lower abdomen, feels like menstrual cramps, walking strengthens contractions, dilatation/effacement changes and more intense?
    True Labor Contractions
  168. What surgical puncture of the amniotic sac for the purpose of removing amniotic fluid to diagnose congenital abnormalities is performed at 16 weeks?
    Alpha Fetal Protein and amniocentesis
  169. What is a surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and a baby is delivered transabdominally?
    Cesarean Section (C-Section)
  170. What is a test used to evaluate the ability of the fetus to tolerate the stress of labor and delivery also known as oxytocin challenge test?
    Contraction Stress Test
  171. What is the use of an electronic device to monitor the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions?
    Fetal Monitoring
  172. What is a noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis and images of the fetus?
    Pelvic Ultrasound
  173. What is the process of measuring the female pelvis, manually or by x-ray to determine its adequacy for childbearing?
    Pelvimetry

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