final review}{random

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Author:
recursion0
ID:
95320
Filename:
final review}{random
Updated:
2011-07-26 19:48:34
Tags:
phy sci
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Description:
anatomy physiology review
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  1. Where is Na absorbed in the urinary system, w/o water?
    early and late distal tubule
  2. what is the order of usage of energy sources by muscles?
    first atp, then creatine phosphate, then glycogen
  3. what is the creatine phosphate chemical reaction?
    creatine-phosphate + ADP --(creatine kinase)--> ATP + creatine
  4. which hormones are hydrophilic?
    peptides, proteins, and catecholamines
  5. which hormones are lipophilic?
    steroid hormones and thyroid hormones
  6. what converts fibrinogen to fibrin?
    thrombin
  7. what transforms prothrombin into thrombin?
    prothrombinase
  8. |}Ca{:. skeletal]?[cardiac muscle .:|
    • cardiac - Ca comes in from outside the cell and from the SR
    • skeletal - Ca comes only from the SR
  9. what is the hyperventilation chemical reaction? names are fine
    carbon dioxide + water <-> carbonic acid <-> hydrogen ions + bicarbonate
  10. what is the negative feedback mechanism of hyperventilation?
    chemoreceptors in the brain stem pick up elevated levels of hydrogen ions in the blood stream which stimulates the diaphram and external intercostal muscles ->increased exhalation -> decreased carbon dioxide
  11. What is the typical blood osmolarity in mL?
    300
  12. What is the typical tidal volume in mL?
    500
  13. What do the following corespond to? P wave:
    QRS complex:
    T wave:
    • P = atria depolarizing then contracting
    • QRS complex = ventricls ""
    • T = ventricles repolarizing
  14. Where in the EKG cycle would the atria repolarize?
    obscured by the QRS complex
  15. |}AP{:. cardiac]?[skeletal .:|
    cardiac is much longer and has a plateu
  16. What does aldosterone do? What category does it belong to?
    • makes more epithelial (not voltage gated) Na channels thereby enhancing Na retention
    • mineralcorticoid
  17. how much glucose is normally in urine?
    none
  18. Where is ADH made? released?
    • hypothalamus
    • posterior pituitary
  19. what is renin?
    a proteolytic enzyme that regulates the volume of extracellular fluid Oo. blood plasma, lymph, and interstitial fluid
  20. what is GFR?
    glomerular filtration rate: the volume of fluid filtered by the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule==space per unit of time
  21. |]urine production[:. nephrogenic diabetes insipidos][normal][diabetes mellitus .:|
    25 L/day, 1-5 L/Day, above normal
  22. What causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidos?
    defective ADH][ defective aquaporin
  23. How much water is absorbed from the proximal tubule?
    none.
  24. proximal tubule reabsorbs ____
    60-20% of Na, also glucose
  25. what does ADH stand for and do?
    antidiuretic hormone, it decreases water excretion by exiting the peritubular capillary, binding to receptors on the basal side of epithelial cells in the collecting duct -> cAMP -> vesicles create more aquaporin by which water leaks out of the cell to the apical side}{lumen of the collecting duct
  26. what is the proper name for a water channel?
    aquaporin
  27. how many kidneys are in the body?
    2
  28. what is the overview of process of urine production via organs?
    blood to kidneys to ureter to bladder to urethra
  29. what is the functional unit of the kidney?
    nephrons
  30. what happens to the osmotic gradient as you go into the medulla from the cortex? (.oO kidney)
    it increases
  31. what is urea?
    • the waste product form of nitrogen reactants in the body
    • has strong odor
    • neutral pH
  32. adrenal gland (s)o. ___ (s)o. ____
    |-> sits on top of ____
    • cortex, medulla
    • kidney
  33. what does aldosterone do?
    |-.o(c) ____ .o(c) ____
    • major regulator of blood volume
    • mineralocorticoids, steroids
  34. lack of thyroxine development == ?
    cretinism
  35. what does thyroxine do? trait?
    affects basal metabolic rate. lipophilic
  36. calcitonin .o(s) ?
    |-> does what?
    osteoblasts, brings Ca from blood to bones
  37. PTH .o(s) osteoclasts
    |-> does what?
    brings Ca from the bones to the blood
  38. hypothyroid and hyperthyroid ,o(c) ?
    goiter
  39. hypothyroid = ?
    lack of iodine in the diet
  40. hyperthyroid = ?
    an autoimmune disease, antiboides stimulate thyrotropin receptors on the thyroid
  41. diuresis =?
    water secretion as urine
  42. where does growth occur in bones? where is that place?
    in the epiphyseal plates, between the bone head and shaft
  43. where is breathing controlled? where is that?
    in the medulla .o(s) brain stem
  44. what is acidosis?
    an increase in carbonic acid
  45. where is the thyroid?
    on}{over the trachea

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