Weather and Climate Ch3

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Weather and Climate Ch3
2011-07-26 19:28:58
Weather Climate

Weather and Climate Ch3
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  1. Absorbtion
    represents an energy transfer to the absorber. Two affects: The absorber gains energy and warms, while the amount of energy delivered to Earth's surface is reduced. Used by atmospheric gases, particles, and droplets to reduce the intensity of insolation.
  2. reflection
    a process whereby radiation making contact with some material is redirected away from the surface without being absorbed.
  3. albedo
    The percentage of visible light reflected by an object or substance.
  4. specular reflection
    (One of 2 ways light can be reflected off a surface) When light strikes a mirror it is reflected back as a beam of equal intensity.
  5. diffuse reflection (Scattering)
    (One of 2 ways light can be reflected off a surface) when a beam of light is reflected from an object as a larger number of weaker rays traveling in many different directions.
  6. diffuse radiation
    scattered energy that is redirected and reaches the Earth's surface (in contrast to direct radiation)
  7. Direct radiation
    Radiation that is not scattered (not diffuse radiation)
  8. Rayleigh Scattering
    (one of 3 categories of scattering) performed by individual gas molecules in the atmosphere, scattering agents smaller than about one-tenth the wavelength of incoming radiation disperse radiaton by Rayleigh Scattering. Shorter wavelengths more easily scattered by individual molecules (hence, blue wavelengths shortest, so sky is blue) [radiates forward and backward]
  9. Mie Scattering
    (one of 3 categories of scattering) [radiates predominantly forward] Microscopic aerosol particles scatter light with Mie Scattering {unlike Rayleigh Scattering, Mie scattering scatters wavelengths of different lengths equally. hence, pollution by Mie scattering makes the sky appear gray}
  10. Nonselective Scattering
    (one of 3 categories of scattering) Due to tha absence of preference for any particular wavelength, scattering by clouds is called nonselective scattering.
  11. planetary albedo
    the amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface
  12. atmospheric window
    the range of wavelengths (8 to 12 um) not readily absorbed by atmospheric gases.
  13. net longwave radiation
    the difference between absorbed and emitted longwave radiation
  14. net allwave radiation (net radiation)
    the difference between absorbed and emitted radiation (or the net energy gained or lost by radiation)
  15. laminar boundary layer
    (upper few centimeters of the ground) Due to conduction, warming ofthe ground by radiation also makes the sliver of ground under the upper layer (called the laminar boundary layer) hotter than the ground below it.
  16. free convection
    mixing process in which there is a tendency of lighter fluid (liguid or gases in air) to float upward when surrounded by a heavier fluid.
  17. forced convection (mechanical turbulence)
    occurs when a fluid breaks into disorganized swirling motions as it undergoes a large-scale flow.
  18. sensible heat
    when energy is added to a substance, an increase in temperature can occur that we can physically sense (ex. - feel heat on a sunny day)
  19. specific heat
    the amount of energy needed to produce a given temperature change per unit mass of the substance.
  20. Latent heat
    the energy required to change the phase (state) of a substance
  21. advection
    the horizontal movement of heat (mainly by winds)
  22. greenhouse effect
    the interactions that warm the atmosphere
  23. isotherm
    line on a weather map connecting points of equal temperature. Moving along an isotherm there is no change in temperature.
  24. inversion
    reversal of the normal patterns of the troposphere in which the temperature increases with increasing altitude
  25. continentality
    athe effect of an inland location that favors greater temperature extremes.
  26. maximum thermometer
    (must contain mercury) used to find the daily maximum temperature
  27. minimum thermometer
    (must contain dyed alcohol) used to find daily low temperature
  28. bimetallic strip
    (measures temperature) two stips of different types of metal bonded together. each type of metal has different rate of expansion and contraction with temperature, so the bend differently with a pointer and scale attached. When connected with a pen, a thermograph is created, continuously recording the temperature.
  29. thermograph
    (created by a bimettalic strip) gives a contnuous record of the temperature.
  30. resistance thermometers
    use electric currents through conductor or semiconductor material exposed to the air. Measures the resistance of the air to the electrical current.
  31. thermistor
    type of resistance thermometer that uses a ceramic semiconductor as opposed to a metallic one.
  32. Radiosondes
    packages of weather instruments carried by balloons
  33. wind chill temperature index
    how cold a temperature feels in contrast to the actual temperature
  34. heating degree-days
    buildings need a/c to bring temp up to desired temperature based on the idea that if the temp falls below a certain degree as defined by the country, they should expect to turn the heat up.
  35. cooling degree-days
    opposite of heating degree-days
  36. Growing degree-days
    estimate when crops will be ready to be sent to market, very similar to heating-degree days
  37. thermodynamic diagrams
    depict the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity with height above the surface.
  38. Stuve (STU-vay) diagram
    type of thermodynamic diagram