Thyroid more and diuretics

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  1. What are the Thyroid hormones three actions
    • stimulation of energy use
    • simulation of the heart
    • promotion of growth and development
  2. Four steps in Thyroid hormone synthesis
    • 1. Uptake of iodide by the thyroid
    • 2. Conversion of iodide to iodine
    • 3. Linking of iodine to tyrosine
    • 4. Coupling of two iodinated tyrosines to form T3 and T4
  3. Low plasma levels of iodine stimulate synthesis of
    T3 and T4
  4. High ceiling diuretics
    (loop diuretics)

    block sodium and chloride reabsorption in the loop of Henle
  5. High ceiling diuretics produce the
    greatest diuresis
  6. Conditions that justify the use of furosemide include
    • pulmonary edema associated w/ HF
    • edema of hepatic, cardiac, or renal origin that has been unresponsive to less efficacious diuretics
    • Hypertension
  7. High ceiling diuretics can cause
    • Hyponatremia
    • Hypochloremia
    • dehydration
  8. High ceiling diuretics can cause hypOtension by
    • decreasing blood volume and
    • relaxing venous smooth muscle
  9. High ceiling diuretics can cause_____which is usually reversible
    Ototoxicity (hearing loss)
  10. What is a special problem for pts taking digoxin
    Hypokalemia caused by high-ceiling diuretics
  11. Thiazide diuretics
    block sodium and water reabsorption in early distal convoluted tubule
  12. Thiazide diuretics produce less
    diuresis than high-ceiling diuretics
  13. Therapeutic uses of Thiazide diuretics
    • essential hypertension
    • mobilization of edematous fluid
  14. Like high ceiling diuretics, Thiazide can cause
    • dehydration
    • hypokalemia
    • dose not cause hearing loss
  15. Thiazide -induced hypokalemia is a special problem for pts taking
  16. Thiazide diuretics can cross the
    placental barrier to produce fetal harm directly
  17. Potassium-sparing diruetics
    act by directly or indirectly blocking sodium-potassium "exchange" in the distal convoluted tubule
  18. Potassium sparing diuretics cause only
    modest diuresis
  19. What are the two subcategories of potassium-sparing diuretics
    • Aldosterone antagonists
    • Nonaldosterone antagonists
  20. Potassium-sparing diuretics are used primarily to
    counteract potassium loss in pts taking high ceiling diuretics or thiazides
  21. adverse effect of potassium-sparing diuretics
  22. what are the 4 compounds of Osmotic diuretics
    • Mannitol
    • Urea
    • Glycerin
    • Isosorbide
  23. Out of the 4 compounds of Osmotic diuretics which one is used for diuretic actions
  24. Mannitol promotes
    diuresis by creating an osmotic force within the lumen of the nephron
  25. Mannitol can preserve
    urine flow and may thereby prevent renal failure
  26. What can be reduced with Mannitol
    Intracranial pressure (ICP) that has elevated by cerebral edema
  27. Mannitol and other osmotic agents can
    Lower intraocular pressure
  28. Adverse effect of mannitol is seen when
    mannitol leaves the vascular system

    *it draws water along, causing edema
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Thyroid more and diuretics
2011-07-26 23:52:31

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