BIOL 189 Final - Deck 1

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  1. Define Biology.
    the study of life
  2. List the levels of organization in the proper order.
    • atom
    • molecule
    • organelle
    • cell
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • organism
    • population
    • community
    • ecosystem
    • biosphere
  3. Define matter.
    anything that has mass and takes up space
  4. In what three forms can matter be found?
    • solids
    • liquids
    • gases
  5. How many elements are naturally occuring?
  6. Which four elements make up most of all living matter?
    • carbon
    • oxygen
    • hydrogen
    • nitrogen
  7. What is the charge of a proton?
  8. What is the charge of a neutron?
  9. What is the charge of an electron?
  10. What sub-atomic particles can be found in the nucleus of an atom?
    protons and neutrons
  11. Where can electrons be found in an atom?
    in the electron cloud
  12. What is the atomic number?
    the number of protons in an element
  13. What is the mass number of an element?
    the number of protons and neutrons
  14. Will the mass number or the atomic mass be a whole number?
    the mass number
  15. What is the atomic mass?
    the actual mass of an atom of a particular element
  16. How is an isotope different from the regular version of an element?
    it has a different number of neutrons
  17. Which electron shell will have the greatest potential energy?
    the outermost shell
  18. Which electron shell will have the least potential energy?
    the innermost shell
  19. The outer electron shell is known as the:
    valence shell
  20. How does the number of valence electrons affect the way an element will behave?
    the less full the valence shell, the more likely the element is to form chemical bonds
  21. Which type of chemical bonds are the weakest?
    hydrogen bonds
  22. Which type of chemical bonds are the strongest?
    covalent bonds
  23. What occurs during ionic bonding?
    electrons are transferred from one atom to another in order to fill up the valence shell
  24. What is an anion?
    an atom that gains a negative charge due to an ionic bond
  25. An atom that gains a positive charge due to an ionic bond is known as a:
  26. What type of chemical bonds involves sharing electrons?
    covalent bonds
  27. How many electron pairs are being shared in a double covalent bond?
  28. A covalent bond in which the electron attraction is unequal is known as a:
    polar covalent bond
  29. In a non-polar covalent bond the electrons are shared:
  30. How does a hydrogen bond work?
    hydrogen's partial positive charge is attracted to the electronegative charge of another atom
  31. Why is water a polar molecule?
    because oxygen is extremely electronegative
  32. When molecular movement increase, kinetic energy:
  33. Heat is a measure of what?
    kinetic energy
  34. Will water expand or contract when it cools?
    contract until it reaches the critical point, then it will begin to expand
  35. At what temperature does the expansion/contraction of water change?
    4 degrees Celsius
  36. Why does the expansion/contraction of water change?
    below 4 degrees, the hydrogen bonds form a lattice structure making ice less dense that water
  37. A _________ is dissolved in a solvent to form a ________.
    solute, solution
  38. How will water molecules surround a positive ion?
    the electronegative oxygen at will turn to face it
  39. Which end of a water molecule, hydrogen or oxygen, will face a negatively charged ion?
    the hydrogen end
  40. In an aqueous solution, the product of the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide should be equal to:
  41. In a neutral solution [H+] should be equal to:
  42. In a neutral solution [OH-] should be equal to:
  43. In a solution of pH 5, what is the [H+]?
  44. In a solution of pH 11, what is the [OH-]?
  45. If the [H+] is 10-2, what is the pH?
  46. If the [OH-] is 10-10, what is the pH?
  47. Does decreasing the pH number make a solution more or less acidic?
    more acidic
  48. Does increasing the pH number make the solution more or less acidic?
    less acidic
  49. A pH solution of 9 has a greater concentration of which ions?
  50. Does a solution with pH of 3 have a greater or lesser concentration of hydrogen ions that a solution with pH of 5?
    greater concentration of [H+]
Card Set
BIOL 189 Final - Deck 1
Deck 1 of study cards for BIOL 189 Final CSN
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