Final Vocab.txt

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Final Vocab.txt
2011-07-27 09:55:27

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  1. Biologics
    Substances that produce biologic responses within the body; they are synthesized by cells of the human body, animal cells, or microorganisms.
  2. Clinical investigation
    Second stage of drug testing that involves clinical phase trials.
  3. Clinical phase trials
    Testing of a new drug in selected patients.
  4. Complementary and alternative therapies
    Treatments considered outside the realm of conventional Western medicine.
  5. Drug
    General term for any substance capable of producing biologic responses in the body.
  6. FDA's Critical Path Initiative
    National strategy for transforming the way FDA-regulated products are developed, evaluated, manufactured, and used.
  7. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    U.S. agency responsible for the evaluation and approval of new drugs.
  8. Formulary
    List of drugs and drug recipes commonly used by pharmacists.
  9. Investigational New Drug Application (IND)
    Application to the FDA that contains all the animal and cell testing data.
  10. Medication
    Drug after it has been administered.
  11. NDA review
    Third stage of new drug evaluation by the FDA.
  12. Pharmacology
    The study of medicines; the discipline pertaining to how drugs improve or maintain health.
  13. Pharmacopoeia
    Medical reference indicating standards of drug purity, strength, and directions for synthesis.
  14. Pharmacotherapy
    Treatment or prevention of disease by means of drugs.
  15. Postmarketing surveillance
    Evaluation of a new drug after it has been approved and used in large numbers of patients.
  16. Preclinical investigation
    Procedure implemented after a drug has been licensed for public use, designed to provide information on use and on occurrence of side effects.
  17. Therapeutics
    The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease and suffering.
  18. Bioavailability
    Ability of a drug to reach the bloodstream and its target tissues.
  19. Chemical name
    Strict chemical nomenclature used for naming drugs established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
  20. Combination drug
    Drug product with more than one active generic ingredient.
  21. Controlled substance
    In the United States, a drug whose use is restricted by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act; in Canada, a drug subject to guidelines outlined in the Canadian Narcotic Control Act.
  22. Dependence
    Strong physiological or psychological need for a substance.
  23. Generic name
    Nonproprietary name of a drug assigned by the government.
  24. Mechanism of action
    The way in which a drug exerts its effects.
  25. Pharmacologic classification
    Method for organizing drugs on the basis of their mechanism of action.
  26. Prototype drug
    Well-understood model drug with which other drugs in a pharmacologic class may be compared.
  27. Scheduled drugs
    In the United States, a term describing a drug placed into one of five categories based on its potential for misuse or abuse.
  28. Therapeutic classification
    Method for organizing drugs on the basis of their clinical usefulness.
  29. Trade name
    Proprietary name of a drug assigned by the manufacturer; also called the brand name or product name.
  30. Withdrawal
    Physical signs of discomfort associated with the discontinuation of an abused substance.
  31. Allergic reaction
    Acquired hyperresponse of body defenses to a foreign substance (allergen).
  32. Anaphylaxis
    Acute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may lead to life-threatening shock if untreated.
  33. Apothecary system
    Older system of measurement that uses drams; rarely used.
  34. ASAP order
    As soon as possible order that should be available for administration to the patient within 30 minutes of the written order.
  35. Astringent effect
    Drops or spray used to shrink swollen mucous membranes, or to loosen secretions and facilitate drainage.
  36. Buccal route
    Administration of a tablet or capsule by placing it in the oral cavity between the gum and the cheek.
  37. Compliance
    Taking a medication in the manner prescribed by the health care provider, or, in the case of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, following the instructions on the label.
  38. Enteral route
    Administration of drugs orally, and through nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes.
  39. Enteric coated
    Referring to tablets that have a hard, waxy coating designed to dissolve in the alkaline environment of the small intestine.
  40. Five rights of drug administration
    Principles that offer simple and practical guidance for nurses to use during drug preparation, delivery, and administration.
  41. Household system
    Older system of measurement that uses teaspoons, tablespoons, and cups.
  42. Intradermal (ID)
    Medication administered into the dermis layer of the skin.
  43. Intramuscular (IM)
    Delivery of medication into specific muscles.
  44. Intravenous (IV)
    Administration of medications and fluids directly into the bloodstream.
  45. Metric system of measurement
    Most common system of drug measurement that uses grams and liters.
  46. Parenteral route
    Dispensation of medications via a needle into the skin layers.
  47. PRN order
    Medication is administered as required by the patient's condition.
  48. Routine orders
    Order not written as STAT, ASAP, NOW, or PRN.
  49. Single order
    Medication that is to be given only once, and at a specific time, such as a preoperative order.
  50. Standing order
    Order written in advance of a situation that is to be carried out under specific circumstances.
  51. STAT order
    Any medication that is needed immediately and is to be given only once.
  52. Subcutaneous
    Medication delivered beneath the skin.
  53. Sublingual route
    Administration of medication by placing it under the tongue and allowing it to dissolve slowly.
  54. Sustained release
    Tablets or capsules designed to dissolve slowly over an extended time.
  55. Three checks of drug administration
    In conjunction with the five rights, these ascertain patient safety and drug effectiveness.
  56. Absorption
    The process of moving a drug across body membranes.
  57. Affinity
    Chemical attraction that impels certain molecules to unite with others to form complexes.
  58. Blood-brain barrier
    Anatomical structure that prevents certain substances from gaining access to the brain.
  59. Conjugates
    Side chains that, during metabolism, make drugs more water soluble and more easily excreted by the kidney.
  60. Distribution
    The process of transporting drugs through the body.
  61. Drug-protein complex
    Drug that has bound reversibly to a plasma protein, particularly albumin, that makes the drug unavailable for distribution to body tissues.
  62. Enterohepatic recirculation
    Recycling of drugs and other substances by the circulation of bile through the intestine and liver.
  63. Enzyme induction
    Process in which a drug changes the function of the hepatic microsomal enzymes and increases metabolic activity in the liver.
  64. Excretion
    The process of removing substances from the body.
  65. Fetal-placental barrier
    Special anatomical structure that inhibits entry of many chemicals and drugs to the fetus.
  66. First-pass effect
    Mechanism whereby drugs are absorbed across the intestinal wall and enter into the hepatic portal circulation.
  67. Hepatic microsomal enzyme system
    As it relates to pharmacotherapy, liver enzymes that inactivate drugs and accelerate their excretion; sometimes called the P-450 system.
  68. Loading dose
    Comparatively large dose given at the beginning of treatment to rapidly obtain the therapeutic effect of a drug.
  69. Maintenance dose
    Dose that keeps the plasma drug concentration continuously in the therapeutic range.
  70. Metabolism
    Total of all biochemical reactions in the body.
  71. Minimum effective concentration
    Amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect.
  72. Pharmacokinetics
    Study of how drugs are handled by the body.
  73. Plasma half-life (t 1/2)
    The length of time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by half after administration.
  74. Prodrug
    Drug that becomes more active after it is metabolized.
  75. Therapeutic range
    The dosage range or serum concentration that achieves the desired drug effects.
  76. Toxic concentration
    Level of drug that will result in serious adverse effects.
  77. Agonist
    Drug that is capable of binding with receptors to induce a cellular response.
  78. Antagonist
    Drug that blocks the response of another drug.
  79. Efficacy
    The ability of a drug to produce a desired response.
  80. Frequency distribution curve
    Graphical representation that illustrates interpatient variability in responses to drugs.
  81. Graded dose-response
    Relationship between and measurement of the patient's response obtained at different doses of a drug.
  82. Idiosyncratic response
    Unpredictable and unexplained drug reaction.
  83. Median effective dose (ED 50)
    Dose required to produce a specific therapeutic response in 50% of a group of patients.
  84. Median lethal dose (LD 50)
    Often determined in preclinical trials, the dose of drug that will be lethal in 50% of a group of animals.
  85. Median toxicity dose (TD 50)
    Dose that will produce a given toxicity in 50% of a group of patients.
  86. Nonspecific cellular response
    Drug action that is independent of cellular receptors and is not associated with other mechanisms, such as changing the permeability of cellular membranes, depressing membrane excitability, or altering the activity of cellular pumps.
  87. Partial agonist
    Medication that produces a weaker, or less efficacious, response than an agonist.
  88. Pharmacodynamics
    Study of how the body responds to drugs.
  89. Pharmacogenetics
    Area of pharmacology that examines the role of genetics in drug response.
  90. Potency
    The strength of a drug at a specified concentration or dose.
  91. Receptor
    The structural component of a cell to which a drug binds in a dose-related manner, to produce a response.
  92. Second messenger
    Cascade of biochemical events that initiates a drug's action by either stimulating or inhibiting a normal activity of the cell.
  93. Therapeutic index
    The ratio of a drug's LD 50 to its ED 50.
  94. Assessment phase
    Appraisal of a patient's condition that involves gathering and interpreting data.
  95. Baseline data
    Patient information that is gathered before pharmacotherapy is implemented.
  96. Evaluation phase
    Objective assessment of the effectiveness and impact of interventions.
  97. Goal
    Any object or objective that the patient or nurse seeks to attain or achieve.
  98. Implementation phase
    When the nurse applies the knowledge, skills, and principles of nursing care to help move the patient toward the desired goal and optimal wellness.
  99. Nursing diagnosis
    Clinically based judgment about the patient and his or her response to health and illness.
  100. Nursing process
    Five-part decision-making system that includes assessment, nursing diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
  101. Objective data
    Information gathered through physical assessment, laboratory tests, and other diagnostic sources.
  102. Outcome
    Objective measurement of goals.
  103. Planning phase
    Linkage of strategies or interventions to established goals and outcomes.
  104. Subjective data
    Information gathered regarding what a patient states or perceives.
  105. Adolescence
    Period from 13 to 16 years of age.
  106. Embryonic period
    Period of life from 3 to 8 weeks postconception.
  107. Fetal period
    Period of life from 9 to 40 weeks postconception.
  108. Infancy
    Child younger than 1 year.
  109. Middle adulthood
    Person from 40 to 65 years of age.
  110. Older adulthood
    Person older than age 65.
  111. Polypharmacy
    The taking of multiple drugs concurrently.
  112. Preimplantation period
    Period of life from 1 to 2 weeks postconception.
  113. Preschool child
    Child from 3 to 5 years of age.
  114. School-age child
    Child from 6 to 12 years of age.
  115. Teratogen
    Drug or other agent that causes developmental birth defects.
  116. Toddlerhood
    Term applied to children from 1 to 3 years of age.
  117. Young adulthood
    Term applied to persons from 18 to 40 years of age.
  118. Cultural competence
    The ability of health care providers to provide care for people with diverse values, beliefs, and behaviors, including the ability to adapt delivery of care to meet the needs of these patients.
  119. Culture
    Set of beliefs, values, religious rituals, and customs shared by a group of people.
  120. Ethnicity
    Referring to people having a common history and similar genetic heritage.
  121. Genetic polymorphism
    Changes in enzyme structure and function due to mutation of the encoding gene.
  122. Holistic
    Viewing a person as an integrated biologic, psychosocial, cultural, communicating whole, existing and functioning within the communal environment.
  123. Human integration pyramid
    A conceptual framework for dealing with patients in a holistic manner.
  124. Pharmacogenetics
    Area of pharmacology that examines the role of genetics in drug response.
  125. Psychosocial
    Describes a person's psychological development in the context of one's social environment.
  126. Spirituality
    The capacity to love, to convey compassion and empathy, to give and forgive, to enjoy life, and to find peace of mind and fulfillment in living.
  127. Medication administration record (MAR)
    Documentation of all pharmacotherapies received by the patient.
  128. Medication error
    Any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care provider, patient, or consumer.
  129. Medication error index
    Categorization of medication errors according to the extent of the harm an error can cause.
  130. Medication reconciliation
    The process of keeping track of a patient's medications as they proceed from one health care provider to another.
  131. Polypharmacy
    The taking of multiple drugs concurrently.
  132. Risk management
    System of reducing medication errors by modifying policies and procedures within the institution.
  133. Botanical
    Plant extract used to treat or prevent illness.
  134. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
    Treatments that consider the health of the whole person and promote disease prevention.
  135. Dietary supplement
    Nondrug substance regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA).
  136. Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act
    Law that requires companies that market herbal and dietary supplements to include their address and phone number on the product labels so consumers can report adverse events.
  137. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA)
    Primary law in the United States regulating herb and dietary supplements.
  138. Herb
    Plant with a soft stem that is used for healing or as a seasoning.
  139. Specialty supplement
    Nonherbal dietary product used to enhance a wide variety of body functions.
  140. Addiction
    The continued use of a substance despite its negative health and social consequences.
  141. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Disorder typically diagnosed in childhood and adolescence characterized by hyperactivity as well as attention, organization, and behavior control issues.
  142. Benzodiazepines
    Major class of drugs used to treat anxiety disorders.
  143. Cross-tolerance
    Situation in which tolerance to one drug makes the patient tolerant to another drug.
  144. Delirium tremens (DT)
    A syndrome of intense agitation, confusion, terrifying hallucinations, uncontrollable tremors, panic attacks, and paranoia caused by alcohol withdrawal.
  145. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    The active chemical ingredient in marijuana responsible for its psychoactive properties.
  146. Designer drugs
    Substance produced in a laboratory and intended to mimic the effects of another psychoactive controlled substance.
  147. Opioid
    Substance obtained from the unripe seeds of the poppy plant; natural or synthetic morphine-like substance.
  148. Physical dependence
    Condition of experiencing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when a substance is discontinued.
  149. Psychedelics
    Substance that alters perception and reality.
  150. Psychologic dependence
    Intense craving for a drug that drives people to continue drug abuse.
  151. Reticular formation
    Portion of the brain affecting awareness and wakefulness.
  152. Sedative
    Substance that depresses the CNS to cause drowsiness or sleep.
  153. Substance abuse
    Self-administration of a drug that does not conform to the medical or social norms within the patient's given culture or society.
  154. Tolerance
    Process of adapting to a drug over a period of time and subsequently requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect.
  155. Withdrawal syndrome
    Symptoms that result when a patient discontinues taking a substance on which he or she was dependent.
  156. Activated charcoal
    Short-term treatment (within 60 minutes) after a patient has ingested a threatening amount of carbon-based poison; molecules adhere to activated charcoal and minimize or prevent poisons from absorption.
  157. Acute radiation syndrome
    Life-threatening symptoms resulting from acute exposure to ionizing radiation, including nausea, vomiting, severe leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and alopecia.
  158. Anthrax
    Microorganism that can cause severe disease and high mortality in humans.
  159. Basic supportive care
    One of the first elements of toxicity treatment involving maintaining the patient's airway, breathing, and circulation; making sure proper blood glucose levels are stable; maintaining proper arterial blood gases; treatment of developing seizures; and management of acid-base disturbances.
  160. Bioterrorism
    Intentional use of infectious biologic agents, chemical substances, or radiation to cause widespread harm or illness.
  161. Gastric lavage and aspiration
    Course of treatment (within 60 minutes) after the patient has ingested a potentially life-threatening amount of poison; this is performed by washing out the stomach with sterile water or a saltwater solution followed by removal of the fluid or mixed substances.
  162. Ionizing radiation
    Radiation that is highly penetrating and can cause serious biologic effects.
  163. Nerve agents
    Chemical used in warfare or by bioterrorists that can affect the central nervous system and cause death.
  164. Specific antidotes
    Direct remedies to counter the effects of poisons or toxins in various cases including heavy metals, radioactive agents, and overdosing of pharmacologic substances.
  165. Strategic National Stockpile (SNS)
    Program designed to ensure the immediate deployment of essential medical materials to a community in the event of a large-scale chemical or biologic attack.
  166. Syrup of Ipecac
    Remedy primarily used to induce vomiting following ingestion of poisonous substances; ipecac irritates the gastric mucosa and promotes emesis by stimulating the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) within the brainstem.
  167. Vaccine
    Biologic material that confers protection against infection; preparation of microorganism particles that is injected into a patient to stimulate the immune system, with the intention of preventing disease.
  168. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)
    Supplies and pharmaceuticals that are shipped after a chemical or biologic threat has been identified.
  169. Whole-bowel irrigation
    Act of mechanically flushing the ingested poison from the gastrointestinal tract after the patient has ingested potentially toxic doses of lead, zinc, or illicit drugs; this technique may be used for overdosed sustained-release or enteric-coated drugs.
  170. Acetylcholine (Ach)
    Primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system; also present at somatic neuromuscular junctions and at sympathetic preganglionic nerves.
  171. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE)
    Enzyme that degrades acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft, enhancing effects of the neurotransmitter.
  172. Adrenergic
    Relating to nerves that release norepinephrine or epinephrine.
  173. Adrenergic antagonist
    Drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system.
  174. Alpha receptor
    Type of subreceptor found in the sympathetic nervous system.
  175. Anticholinergic
    Drug that blocks the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system.
  176. Autonomic nervous system
    Portion of the peripheral nervous system that governs involuntary actions of the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
  177. Beta receptor
    Type of subreceptor found in the sympathetic nervous system.
  178. Catecholamines
    Class of agents secreted in response to stress that include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
  179. Central nervous system (CNS)
    Division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
  180. Cholinergic
    Relating to nerves that release acetylcholine.
  181. Fight-or-flight response
    Characteristic set of signs and symptoms produced when the sympathetic nervous system is activated.
  182. Ganglionic synapse
    The juncture between two multipolar neurons located outside of the central nervous system (CNS), where axon terminals from the first neuron make contact with cell bodies and extensions of the second neuron.
  183. Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
    Enzyme that destroys norepinephrine in the nerve terminal.
  184. Muscarinic
    Type of cholinergic receptor found in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
  185. Myasthenia gravis
    Motor disorder caused by a destruction of nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscles and characterized by profound muscular fatigue.
  186. Nicotinic
    Type of cholinergic receptor found in ganglia of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  187. Norepinephrine (NE)
    Primary neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system.
  188. Parasympathetic nervous system
    Portion of the autonomic nervous system that is active during periods of rest and that results in the rest-or-relaxation response.
  189. Parasympathomimetic
    Drug that mimics the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system.
  190. Peripheral nervous system
    Division of the nervous system containing all nervous tissue outside the CNS, including the autonomic nervous system.
  191. Postganglionic neuron
    Autonomic nerve after the ganglionic synapse transmitting impulses to the target tissue.
  192. Preganglionic neuron
    Autonomic nerve before the ganglionic synapse carrying impulses from the spinal cord.
  193. Rest-and-digest response
    Signs and symptoms produced when the parasympathetic nervous system is activated.
  194. Somatic nervous system
    Nerve division that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle.
  195. Sympathetic nervous system
    Portion of the autonomic system that is active during periods of stress and results in the fight-or-flight response.
  196. Sympatholytics
    A drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system.
  197. Sympathomimetic
    Drug that stimulates or mimics the sympathetic nervous system.
  198. Synapse
    Junction between two neurons consisting of a presynaptic nerve, a synaptic cleft, and a postsynaptic nerve.
  199. Synaptic transmission
    Process by which a neurotransmitter reaches receptors to regenerate the action potential.
  200. Antidepressants
    Drug that alters levels of two important neurotransmitters in the brain, norepinephrine and serotonin, to reduce depression and anxiety.
  201. Anxiety
    State of apprehension and autonomic nervous system activation resulting from exposure to a nonspecific or unknown cause.
  202. Anxiolytics
    Drugs that relieve anxiety.
  203. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    Diagnostic test that records brainwaves through electrodes attached to the scalp.
  204. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
    Difficult-to-control, excessive anxiety that lasts 6 months or more, focuses on a variety of life events, and interferes with normal day-to-day functions.
  205. Hypnotic
    Drug that causes sleep.
  206. Insomnia
    Inability to fall asleep or stay asleep.
  207. Limbic system
    Area in the brain responsible for emotion, learning, memory, motivation, and mood.
  208. Long-term insomnia
    Inability to sleep for more than a few nights, often caused by depression, manic disorders, and chronic pain.
  209. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    Recurrent, intrusive thoughts or repetitive behaviors that interfere with normal activities or relationships.
  210. Panic disorder
    Anxiety disorder characterized by intense feelings of immediate apprehension, fearfulness, terror, or impending doom, accompanied by increased autonomic nervous system activity.
  211. Phobias
    Fearful feeling attached to situations or objects such as snakes, spiders, crowds, or heights.
  212. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    Type of anxiety that develops in response to reexperiencing a previous life event that was psychologically traumatic.
  213. Rebound insomnia
    Increased sleeplessness that occurs when long-term antianxiety or hypnotic medication is discontinued.
  214. REM sleep
    Stage of sleep characterized by quick, scanning movements of the eyes.
  215. Reticular activating system (RAS)
    Responsible for sleeping and wakefulness and performs an alerting function for the cerebral cortex; includes the reticular formation, hypothalamus, and part of the thalamus.
  216. Reticular formation
    Portion of the brain affecting awareness and wakefulness.
  217. Sedative
    Substance that depresses the CNS to cause drowsiness or sleep
  218. Sedative-hypnotic
    Drug with the ability to produce a calming effect at lower doses and to induce sleep at higher doses.
  219. Short-term or behavioral insomnia
    Inability to sleep that is often attributed to stress caused by a hectic lifestyle or the inability to resolve day-to-day conflicts within the home or workplace.
  220. Situational anxiety
    Anxiety experienced by people faced with a stressful environment.
  221. Sleep debt
    Lack of sleep.
  222. Social anxiety
    Fear of crowds.
  223. Tranquilizer
    Older term sometimes used to describe a drug that produces a calm or tranquil feeling.
  224. Absence seizure
    Seizure with a loss or reduction of normal activity, including staring and transient loss of responsiveness.
  225. Atonic seizure
    Very-short-lasting seizure during which the patient may stumble and fall for no apparent reason.
  226. Convulsion
    Uncontrolled muscle contraction or spasm that occurs in the face, torso, arms, or legs.
  227. Eclampsia
    Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder.
  228. Epilepsy
    Disorder of the CNS characterized by seizures and/or convulsions.
  229. Febrile seizure
    Tonic-clonic motor activity lasting 1 to 2 minutes with rapid return of consciousness that occurs in conjunction with elevated body temperature.
  230. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    Neurotransmitter in the CNS.
  231. Generalized seizures
    Seizures that travel throughout the entire brain.
  232. Myoclonic seizure
    Seizure characterized by brief, sudden contractions of a group of muscles.
  233. Partial (focal) seizure
    Seizure that starts on one side of the brain and travels a short distance before stopping.
  234. Seizure
    Symptom of epilepsy characterized by abnormal neuronal discharges within the brain.
  235. Status epilepticus
    Condition characterized by repeated seizures or one prolonged seizure attack that continues for at least 30 minutes.
  236. Tonic-clonic seizure
    Seizure characterized by intense jerking motions and loss of consciousness.
  237. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Disorder typically diagnosed in childhood and adolescence characterized by hyperactivity as well as attention, organization, and behavior control issues.
  238. Bipolar disorder
    Syndrome characterized by extreme and opposite moods, such as euphoria and depression.
  239. Depression
    Disorder characterized by depressed mood, lack of energy, sleep disturbances, abnormal eating patterns, and feelings of despair, guilt, and misery.
  240. Dysthymic disorder
    Less severe type of mood disorder that may prevent a person from feeling well or functioning normally.
  241. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    Treatment used for serious and life-threatening mood disorders in patients who are unresponsive to pharmacotherapy.
  242. Major depressive disorder
    A depressed mood lasting for a minimum of 2 weeks that is present for most of the day, every day, or almost every day.
  243. Mania
    Condition characterized by an expressive, impulsive, excitable, and overreactive nature.
  244. Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)
    Drug inhibiting monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that terminates the actions of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin.
  245. Mood disorder
    Change in behavior such as clinical depression, emotional swings, or manic depression.
  246. Mood stabilizer
    Drug that levels mood that is used to treat bipolar disorder and mania.
  247. Postpartum depression
    Occurring after childbirth.
  248. Psychotic depression
    Expression of intensely negative mood shifts and unusual behaviors involving hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech patterns, or loss of contact with reality.
  249. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
    Type of depression experienced during the dark winter months.
  250. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
    Drug that selectively inhibits the reuptake of serotonin into nerve terminals; used mostly for depression.
  251. Serotonin syndrome (SES)
    Set of signs and symptoms associated with overmedication with antidepressants that includes altered mental status, fever, sweating, and lack of muscular coordination.
  252. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
    Specifically inhibit the reabsorption of serotonin and norepinephrine and elevate mood by increasing the levels of these agents in the central nervous system.
  253. Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)
    Class of drugs used in the pharmacotherapy of depression.
  254. Tyramine
    Form of the amino acid tyrosine that is found in foods such as cheese, beer, wine, and yeast products.
  255. Akathisia
    Inability to remain still; constantly moving.
  256. Delusions
    False ideas and beliefs not founded in reality.
  257. Dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor
    Receptor for dopamine in the basal nuclei of the brain that is associated with schizophrenia and antipsychotic drugs.
  258. Dystonia
    Severe muscle spasms, particularly of the back, neck, tongue, and face; characterized by abnormal tension starting in one area of the body and progressing to other areas.
  259. Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS)
    Symptoms of acute dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesia often caused by antipsychotic drugs.
  260. Hallucinations
    Seeing, hearing, or feeling something that is not real.
  261. Illusions
    Distorted perception of actual sensory stimuli.
  262. Negative symptoms
    In schizophrenia, symptoms that subtract from normal behavior, including a lack of interest, motivation, responsiveness, or pleasure in daily activities.
  263. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
    Potentially fatal condition caused by certain antipsychotic medications characterized by an extremely high body temperature, drowsiness, changing blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and muscle rigidity.
  264. Neuroleptics
    Drug used to treat "nervous-type" conditions like psychoses.
  265. Paranoia
    Having an extreme suspicion and delusion that one is being followed and that others are trying to inflict harm.
  266. Parkinsonism
    Having tremor, muscle rigidity, stooped posture, and a shuffling gait.
  267. Positive symptoms
    In schizophrenia, symptoms that add to normal behavior, including hallucinations, delusions, and a disorganized thought or speech pattern.
  268. Schizoaffective disorder
    Psychosis with symptoms of both schizophrenia and mood disorders.
  269. Schizophrenia
    Psychosis characterized by abnormal thoughts and thought processes, withdrawal from other people and the outside environment, and apparent preoccupation with one's own mental state.
  270. Tardive dyskinesia
    Unusual tongue and face movements such as lip smacking and wormlike motions of the tongue that occur during pharmacotherapy with certain antipsychotics.
  271. A-delta fibers
    Nerves that transmit sensations of sharp pain.
  272. Analgesic
    Drug used to reduce or eliminate pain.
  273. Aura
    Sensory cue such as bright lights, smells, or tastes that precedes a migraine.
  274. C fibers
    Nerves that transmit dull, poorly localized pain.
  275. Cyclooxygenase
    Key enzyme in the prostaglandin metabolic pathway that is blocked by aspirin and other NSAIDs.
  276. Endogenous opioids
    Chemicals produced naturally within the body that decrease or eliminate pain; they closely resemble the actions of morphine.
  277. Kappa receptor
    Type of opioid receptor.
  278. Methadone maintenance
    Treatment of opioid dependence by using methadone.
  279. Migraine
    Severe headache preceded by auras that may include nausea and vomiting.
  280. Mu receptor
    Type of opioid receptor.
  281. Narcotic
    Natural or synthetic drug related to morphine; may be used as a broader legal term referring to hallucinogens, CNS stimulants, marijuana, and other illegal drugs.
  282. Neuropathic pain
    Caused by injury to nerves and typically described as burning, shooting, or numb pain.
  283. Nociceptive pain
    Pain produced by injury to body tissue.
  284. Nociceptor
    Receptor connected with nerves that receive and transmit pain signals to the spinal cord and brain.
  285. Opiate
    Substance closely related to morphine extracted from the poppy plant.
  286. Opioid
    Substance obtained from the unripe seeds of the poppy plant; natural or synthetic morphine-like substance.
  287. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
    Use of an infusion pump to deliver a prescribed amount of pain relief medication over a designated time.
  288. Substance P
    Neurotransmitter within the spinal cord involved in the neural transmission of pain.
  289. Tension headache
    Common type of head pain caused by stress and relieved by nonnarcotic analgesics.
  290. Amide
    Type of chemical linkage found in some local anesthetics involving carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen (-NH-CO-).
  291. Balanced anesthesia
    Use of multiple medications to rapidly induce unconsciousness, cause muscle relaxation, and maintain deep anesthesia.
  292. Ester
    Type of chemical linkage found in some local anesthetics involving carbon and oxygen (-CO-O-).
  293. General anesthesia
    Medical procedure that produces unconsciousness and loss of sensation throughout the entire body.
  294. Local anesthesia
    Loss of sensation to a limited part of the body without loss of consciousness.
  295. Neuroleptanalgesia
    Type of general anesthesia that combines fentanyl with droperidol to produce a state in which patients are conscious though insensitive to pain and unconnected with surroundings.
  296. Neuromuscular blocker
    Drug used to cause total muscle relaxation.
  297. Surgical anesthesia
    Stage 3 of anesthesia, in which most major surgery occurs.
  298. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE)
    Enzyme that degrades acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft, enhancing effects of the neurotransmitter.
  299. Alzheimer's disease
    Most common dementia, characterized by loss of memory, delusions, hallucinations, confusion, and loss of judgment.
  300. Amyloid plaques
    Abnormal protein fragments related to neuronal damage; a sign of Alzheimer's disease observed during autopsy.
  301. Bradykinesia
    Difficulty initiating movement and controlling fine muscle movements.
  302. Corpus striatum
    Area of the brain responsible for unconscious muscle movement; a point of contact for neurons projecting from the substantia nigra.
  303. Dementia
    Degenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss, confusion, and the inability to think or communicate effectively.
  304. Hippocampus
    Region of the brain responsible for learning and memory; a part of the limbic system.
  305. Multiple sclerosis (MS)
    Autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system; a condition where antibodies slowly destroy tissues in the brain and spinal cord.
  306. Neurofibrillary tangles
    Bundles of nerve fibers found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease on autopsy.
  307. Parkinsonism
    Having tremor, muscle rigidity, stooped posture, and a shuffling gait.
  308. Primary-progressive MS
    One of the four recognized forms of Multiple Sclerosis named for gradual advance of the disease from onset and with no superimposed relapses (new or resurfacing symptoms) and remissions (periods of recovery).
  309. Progressive-relapsing MS
    One of the four recognized forms of Multiple Sclerosis named for gradual advance of the disease; there is significant recovery immediately following a relapse, but there is a gradual worsening of symptoms.
  310. Relapse-remitting MS
    One of the four recognized forms of Multiple Sclerosis named whenever new symptoms appear or when they resurface or worsen (relapse); the patient then partially or fully recovers from the acquired deficits (remitting).
  311. Secondary-progressive MS
    One of the four recognized forms of Multiple Sclerosis named for gradual advance of the disease; superimposed relapses (new or resurfacing symptoms) and remissions (periods of recovery) may occur, but they tend to tail off over time.
  312. Substantia nigra
    Location in the brain where dopamine is synthesized that is responsible for regulation of unconscious muscle movement.
  313. Clonic spasm
    Multiple, rapidly repeated muscular contractions.
  314. Dystonia
    Severe muscle spasms, particularly of the back, neck, tongue, and face; characterized by abnormal tension starting in one area of the body and progressing to other areas.
  315. Muscle spasm
    Involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, which become tightened, develop a fixed pattern of resistance, and result in a diminished level of functioning.
  316. Neuromuscular blocker
    Drug used to cause total muscle relaxation.
  317. Spasticity
    Inability of opposing muscle groups to move in a coordinated manner.
  318. Tonic spasm
    Single, prolonged muscular contraction.
  319. Apoprotein
    Protein component of a lipoprotein.
  320. Atherosclerosis
    Condition characterized by a buildup of fatty plaque and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries.
  321. Bile acid resin
    Drug that binds bile acids, thus lowering cholesterol.
  322. Dyslipidemia
    Abnormal (excess or deficient) level of lipoproteins in the blood.
  323. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
    Lipid-carrying particle in the blood that contains high amounts of protein and lower amounts of cholesterol; considered to be "good" cholesterol.
  324. HMG-CoA reductase
    Primary enzyme in the biochemical pathway for the synthesis of cholesterol.
  325. Hypercholesterolemia
    High levels of cholesterol in the blood.
  326. Hyperlipidemia
    Excess amount of lipids in the blood.
  327. Lecithin
    Phospholipid that is an important component of cell membranes.
  328. Lipoprotein
    Substance carrying lipids in the bloodstream that is composed of proteins bound to fat.
  329. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
    Lipid-carrying particle that contains relatively low amounts of protein and high amounts of cholesterol; considered to be "bad" cholesterol.
  330. Phospholipid
    Type of lipid that contains two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a chemical backbone of glycerol.
  331. Reverse cholesterol transport
    The process by which cholesterol is transported away from body tissues to the liver.
  332. Rhabdomyolysis
    Breakdown of muscle fibers usually due to muscle trauma or ischemia.
  333. Steroid
    Type of lipid consisting of four rings that is a structural component of certain hormones and drugs.
  334. Sterol nucleus
    Ring structure common to all steroids.
  335. Triglyceride
    Type of lipid that contains three fatty acids and a chemical backbone of glycerol.
  336. Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)
    Lipid-carrying particle that is converted to LDL in the liver.
  337. Aldosterone
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule of the kidney.
  338. Angiotensin II
    Chemical released in response to falling blood pressure that causes vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone.
  339. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)
    Enzyme responsible for converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
  340. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    Hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland when blood pressure falls or when the osmotic pressure of the blood increases.
  341. Baroreceptors
    Nerves located in the walls of the atria, aortic arch, vena cava, and carotid sinus that sense changes in blood pressure.
  342. Calcium channel blocker
    Drug that blocks the flow of calcium ions into myocardial cells.
  343. Cardiac output
    Amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 minute.
  344. Chemoreceptors
    Nerves located in the aortic arch and carotid sinus that sense changes in oxygen content, pH, or carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
  345. Diuretic
    Substance that increases urine output.
  346. Hypertension (HTN)
    High blood pressure.
  347. Peripheral resistance
    Amount of friction encountered by blood as it travels through the vessels.
  348. Reflex tachycardia
    Temporary increase in heart rate that occurs when blood pressure falls.
  349. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
    Series of enzymatic steps by which the body raises blood pressure.
  350. Secondary hypertension
    Hypertension having a specific identifiable cause.
  351. Stroke volume
    Amount of blood pumped out by a ventricle in a single beat.
  352. Vasomotor center
    Area of the medulla that controls baseline blood pressure.
  353. Afterload
    Pressure that must be overcome for the ventricles to eject blood from the heart.
  354. Cardiac output
    Amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 minute.
  355. Cardiac remodeling
    Change in the size, shape, and structure of the myocardial cells (myocytes) that occurs over time in heart failure.
  356. Contractility
    The strength with which the myocardial fibers contract.
  357. Frank-Starling law
    The greater the degree of stretch on the myocardial fibers, the greater will be the force by which they contract.
  358. Heart failure (HF)
    Disease in which the heart muscle cannot contract with sufficient force to meet the body's metabolic needs.
  359. Inotropic effect
    Change in the strength or contractility of the heart.
  360. Peripheral edema
    Swelling in the limbs, particularly the feet and ankles, due to an accumulation of interstitial fluid.
  361. Phosphodiesterase
    Enzyme in muscle cells that cleaves phosphodiester bonds; its inhibition increases myocardial contractility.
  362. Preload
    Degree of stretch of the cardiac muscle fibers just before they contract.
  363. Angina pectoris
    Acute chest pain on physical or emotional exertion due to inadequate oxygen supply to the myocardium.
  364. Atherosclerosis
    Condition characterized by a buildup of fatty plaque and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries.
  365. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
    Surgical procedure performed to restore blood flow to the myocardium by using a section of the saphenous vein or internal mammary artery to go around the obstructed coronary artery.
  366. Coronary artery disease (CAD)
    One of the leading causes of mortality in the United States. The primary defining characteristic is narrowing or occlusion of a coronary artery.
  367. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
    Enzyme that binds fibrinogen and von Willebrand's factor to begin platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.
  368. Myocardial infarction
    Blood clot blocking a portion of a coronary artery that causes necrosis of cardiac muscle.
  369. Myocardial ischemia
    Lack of blood supply to the myocardium due to a constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel.
  370. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    Procedure by which a balloon-shaped catheter is used to compress fatty plaque against an arterial wall for the purpose of restoring normal blood flow.
  371. Plaque
    Fatty material that builds up in the lining of blood vessels and may lead to hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, or angina.
  372. Silent angina
    Myocardial ischemia that occurs in the absence of pain.
  373. Stable angina
    Type of angina that occurs in a predictable pattern, usually relieved by rest.
  374. Unstable angina
    Severe angina that occurs frequently and that is not relieved by rest.
  375. Vasospastic (Prinzmetal's) angina
    Type of angina in which the decreased myocardial blood flow is caused by spasms of the coronary arteries.
  376. Action potential
    Electrical changes in the membrane of a muscle or nerve cell due to changes in membrane permeability.
  377. Atrioventricular (AV) node
    Cardiac tissue that receives electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node and conveys them to the ventricles.
  378. Atrioventricular bundle
    Cardiac tissue that receives electrical impulses from the AV node and sends them to the bundle branches; also known as the bundle of His.
  379. Automaticity
    Ability of certain myocardial cells to spontaneously generate an action potential.
  380. Bundle branches
    Electrical conduction pathway in the heart leading from the AV bundle and through the wall between the ventricles.
  381. Calcium ion channel
    Pathway in a plasma membrane through which calcium ions enter and leave.
  382. Cardioversion/defibrillation
    Conversion of fibrillation to a normal heart rhythm.
  383. Depolarization
    Reversal of the plasma membrane charge such that the inside is made less negative.
  384. Dysrhythmia
    Abnormality in cardiac rhythm.
  385. Ectopic focus/pacemaker
    Cardiac tissue outside the normal cardiac conduction pathway that generates action potentials.
  386. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
    Device that records the electrical activity of the heart.
  387. Fibrillation
    Type of dysrhythmia in which the chambers beat in a highly disorganized manner.
  388. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD)
    A device placed in patients to restore normal cardiac rhythm by either pacing the heart or giving it an electric shock when dysrhythmias occur.
  389. Polarized
    Condition in which the inside of a cell is more negatively charged than the outside of the cell.
  390. Potassium ion channel
    Pathway in a plasma membrane through which potassium ions enter and leave.
  391. Purkinje fibers
    Electrical conduction pathway leading from the bundle branches to all portions of the ventricles.
  392. Refractory period
    Time during which the myocardial cells rest and are not able to contract.
  393. Sinoatrial (SA) node
    Pacemaker of the heart located in the wall of the right atrium that controls the basic heart rate.
  394. Sinus rhythm
    Number of beats per minute normally generated by the SA node.
  395. Sodium ion channel
    Pathway in a plasma membrane through which sodium ions enter and leave.
  396. Anticoagulant
    Agent that inhibits the formation of blood clots.
  397. Antithrombin III
    Protein that prevents abnormal clotting by inhibiting thrombin.
  398. Clotting factors
    Substances contributing to the process of blood hemostasis.
  399. Coagulation
    Process of blood clotting.
  400. Coagulation cascade
    Complex series of steps by which blood flow stops.
  401. Embolus
    Blood clot carried in the bloodstream.
  402. Fibrin
    An insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the blood clotting process.
  403. Fibrinogen
    Blood protein that is converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the blood coagulation process.
  404. Fibrinolysis
    Removal of a blood clot.
  405. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
    Enzyme that binds fibrinogen and von Willebrand's factor to begin platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.
  406. Hemophilia
    Hereditary lack of a specific blood clotting factor.
  407. Hemostasis
    The slowing or stopping of blood flow.
  408. Hemostatic
    Drug used to inhibit the normal removal of fibrin, used to speed clot formation, and keep the clot in place for a longer period.
  409. Intermittent claudication
    Condition caused by insufficient blood flow to skeletal muscles in the lower limbs, resulting in ischemia of skeletal muscles and severe pain on walking, especially in calf muscles.
  410. Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs)
    Drugs closely resembling heparin that inhibit blood clotting.
  411. Plasmin
    Enzyme formed from plasminogen that dissolves blood clots.
  412. Plasminogen
    Protein that prevents fibrin clot formation; precursor of plasmin.
  413. Prothrombin
    Blood protein that is converted to thrombin in blood coagulation.
  414. Prothrombin activator
    Enzyme in the coagulation cascade that converts prothrombin to thrombin; also called prothrombinase.
  415. Thrombin
    Enzyme that causes clotting by catalyzing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
  416. Thrombocytopenia
    Reduction in the number of circulating platelets.
  417. Thromboembolic disorder
    Condition in which the patient develops blood clots.
  418. Thrombolytic
    Drug used to dissolve existing blood clots.
  419. Thrombus
    Blood clot obstructing a vessel.
  420. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
    Natural enzyme and a drug that dissolves blood clots.
  421. Von Willebrand's disease
    Decrease in quantity or quality of von Willebrand factor (vWF), which acts as a carrier of factor VIII and has a role in platelet aggregation.
  422. Anemia
    Lack of adequate numbers of red blood cells, or decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
  423. Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)
    Hormones that regulate the growth and maturation of specific WBC populations.
  424. Erythropoietin
    Hormone secreted by the kidney that regulates the process of red blood cell formation, or erythropoiesis.
  425. Ferritin
    One of two protein complexes that maintain iron stores inside cells (hemosiderin is the other).
  426. Folic acid/folate
    B vitamin that is a coenzyme in protein and nucleic acid metabolism.
  427. Hematopoiesis
    Process of erythrocyte production that begins with primitive stem cells that reside in bone marrow.
  428. Hemosiderin
    One of two protein complexes that maintain iron stores inside cells (ferritin is the other).
  429. Intrinsic factor
    Chemical substance secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.
  430. Pernicious (megaloblastic) anemia
    Type of anemia usually caused by lack of secretion of intrinsic factor.
  431. Stem cell
    Cell that resides in the bone marrow and is capable of maturing into any type of blood cell.
  432. Thrombopoietin
    Hormone produced by the kidneys that controls megakaryocyte activity.
  433. Transferrin
    Protein complex that transports iron to sites in the body where it is needed.
  434. Anaphylactic shock
    Type of shock caused by an acute allergic reaction.
  435. Cardiogenic shock
    Type of shock caused by a diseased heart that cannot maintain circulation to the tissues.
  436. Colloid
    Type of IV fluid consisting of large organic molecules that are unable to cross membranes.
  437. Crystalloid
    Type of IV fluid resembling blood plasma minus proteins that is capable of crossing membranes.
  438. Hypovolemic shock
    Type of shock caused by loss of fluids such as occurs during hemorrhage, extensive burns, or severe vomiting or diarrhea.
  439. Inotropic agent
    Drug or chemical that changes the force of contraction of the heart.
  440. Neurogenic shock
    Type of shock resulting from brain or spinal cord injury.
  441. Septic shock
    Type of shock caused by severe infection in the bloodstream.
  442. Shock
    Condition in which there is inadequate blood flow to meet the body's metabolic needs.
  443. Carbonic anhydrase
    Enzyme that forms carbonic acid by combining carbon dioxide and water.
  444. Diuretic
    Substance that increases urine output.
  445. Filtrate
    Fluid in the nephron that is filtered at Bowman's capsule.
  446. Nephron
    Structural and functional unit of the kidney.
  447. Reabsorption
    Movement of filtered substances from the kidney tubule back into the blood.
  448. Renal failure
    Condition characterized by a decrease in the kidneys' ability to maintain electrolyte and fluid balance and excrete waste products.
  449. Secretion
    In the kidney, movement of substances from the blood into the tubule after filtration has occurred.
  450. Urinalysis
    Diagnostic test that examines urine for the presence of blood cells, proteins, pH, specific gravity, ketones, glucose, and microorganisms.
  451. Acidosis
    Condition of having too much acid in the blood; plasma pH below 7.35.
  452. Alkalosis
    Condition of having too many basic substances in the blood; plasma pH above 7.45.
  453. Anion
    Negatively charged ion.
  454. Buffer
    Chemical that helps maintain normal body pH by neutralizing strong acids or bases.
  455. Cation
    Positively charged ion.
  456. Colloids
    Type of IV fluid consisting of large organic molecules that are unable to cross membranes.
  457. Crystalloids
    Type of IV fluid resembling blood plasma minus proteins that is capable of crossing membranes.
  458. Electrolytes
    Charged substances in the blood such as sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphate.
  459. Extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment
    Body fluid lying outside cells, which includes plasma and interstitial fluid.
  460. Hyperkalemia
    Serum potassium level above 5 mEq/L.
  461. Hypernatremia
    High sodium level in the blood.
  462. Hypokalemia
    Serum potassium level below 3.5 mEq/L.
  463. Hyponatremia
    Low sodium level in the blood.
  464. Intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment
    Body fluid that is inside cells; accounts for about two thirds of the total body water.
  465. Osmolality
    Number of dissolved particles, or solutes, in 1 kg (1 L) of water.
  466. Osmosis
    Process by which water moves from areas of low solute concentration (low osmolality) to areas of high solute concentration (high osmolality).
  467. pH
    Measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
  468. Tonicity
    The ability of a solution to cause a change in water movement across a membrane due to osmotic forces.
  469. Active immunity
    Resistance resulting from a previous exposure to an antigen.
  470. Antibodies
    Protein produced by the body in response to an antigen; used interchangeably with the term immunoglobulin.
  471. Antigens
    Microbes and foreign substances that elicit an immune response.
  472. B cell
    Lymphocyte responsible for humoral immunity.
  473. Biologic response modifiers
    Natural cytokines that boost specific functions of the immune system.
  474. Calcineurin
    Intracellular messenger molecule to which immunosuppressants bind.
  475. Cytokine
    Chemicals produced by white blood cells, such as interleukins, leukotrienes, interferon, and tumor necrosis factor, that guide the immune response.
  476. Humoral immune response
    A specific body defense mechanism involving the production and release of antibodies.
  477. Immune response
    Specific reaction of the body to foreign agents involving B and/or T lymphocytes.
  478. Immunomodulator
    General term that refers to drugs that affect body defenses.
  479. Immunosuppressant
    Any drug, chemical, or physical agent that lowers the immune defense mechanisms of the body.
  480. Interferon
    Type of cytokine secreted by T cells in response to antigens to protect uninfected cells.
  481. Interleukin
    Class of cytokines synthesized by lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and certain other cells that enhance the capabilities of the immune system.
  482. Nonspecific defense system
    Defense such as inflammation that protects the body from invasion by general hazards.
  483. Passive immunity
    Immune defense that lasts 2 to 3 weeks; obtained by administering antibodies.
  484. Plasma cell
    Cell derived from B lymphocytes that produces antibodies.
  485. T cell
    Type of lymphocyte that is essential for the cell-mediated immune response.
  486. Titer
    Measurement of the amount of a substance in the blood.
  487. Toxoid
    Substance that has been chemically modified to remove its harmful nature but is still able to elicit an immune response in the body.
  488. Transplant rejection
    Recognition by the immune system of a transplanted tissue as foreign and subsequent attack on the tissue.
  489. Vaccination/ immunization
    Inoculation with a vaccine or toxoid to prevent disease.
  490. Vaccine
    Biologic material that confers protection against infection; preparation of microorganism particles that is injected into a patient to stimulate the immune system,with the intention of preventing disease.
  491. Anaphylaxis
    Acute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may lead to life-threatening shock if untreated.
  492. Antipyretic
    Drug that lowers body temperature.
  493. Cushing's syndrome
    Condition of having an excessive concentration of corticosteroids in the blood; caused by excessive secretion by the adrenal glands or by overdosage with corticosteroid medication.
  494. Cyclooxygenase
    Key enzyme in the prostaglandin metabolic pathway that is blocked by aspirin and other NSAIDs.
  495. Histamine
    Chemical released by mast cells in response to an antigen that causes dilation of blood vessels, bronchoconstriction, tissue swelling, and itching.
  496. Inflammation
    Nonspecific body defense that occurs in response to an injury or antigen.
  497. Mast cell
    Connective tissue cell located in tissue spaces that releases histamine following injury.
  498. Prostaglandins
    Class of local hormones that promote local inflammation and pain when released by cells in the body.
  499. Salicylate
    Aspirin belongs to this chemical family.
  500. Salicylism
    Poisoning due to aspirin and aspirin-like drugs.
  501. Acquired resistance
    The capacity of a microbe to no longer be affected by a drug following anti-infective pharmacotherapy.
  502. Aerobic
    Pertaining to an oxygen environment.
  503. Anaerobic
    Pertaining to an environment without oxygen.
  504. Anti-infective
    General term for any medication that is effective against pathogens.
  505. Antibiotic
    Substance produced by a microorganism that inhibits or kills other microorganisms.
  506. Bacteriocidal
    Substance that kills bacteria.
  507. Bacteriostatic
    Substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria.
  508. Beta-lactam ring
    Chemical structure found in most penicillins and some cephalosporins.
  509. Beta-lactamase/penicillinase
    Enzyme present in certain bacteria that is able to inactivate many penicillins and some cephalosporins.
  510. Broad-spectrum antibiotic
    Anti-infective that is effective against many different gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
  511. Culture and sensitivity (C&S) testing
    Laboratory exam used to identify bacteria and to determine which antibiotic is most effective.
  512. Gram-negative bacteria
    Bacteria that do not retain a purple stain because they have an outer envelope.
  513. Gram-positive bacteria
    Bacteria that stain purple because they have no outer envelope.
  514. Host flora
    Normal microorganisms found in or on a patient.
  515. Invasiveness
    The ability of a pathogen to grow extremely rapidly and cause direct damage to surrounding tissues by their sheer numbers.
  516. Mutations
    Permanent, inheritable change to DNA.
  517. Narrow-spectrum antibiotic
    Anti-infective that is effective against only one or a small number of organisms.
  518. Nosocomial infections
    Infection acquired in a health care setting such as a hospital, physician's office, or nursing home.
  519. Pathogen
    Organism that is capable of causing disease.
  520. Pathogenicity
    Ability of an organism to cause disease in humans.
  521. Penicillin-binding protein
    Enzymes used by bacteria to build bacterial cell walls that are targets for penicillins and related antibiotics.
  522. Plasmid
    Small piece of circular DNA found in some bacteria that is able to transfer resistance from one bacterium to another.
  523. Red-man syndrome
    Rash on the upper body caused by certain anti-infectives.
  524. Superinfection
    New infection caused by an organism different from the one causing the initial infection; usually a side effect of anti-infective therapy.
  525. Tubercles
    Cavity-like lesion in the lung characteristic of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  526. Virulence
    The severity of disease that a pathogen is able to cause.
  527. Azole
    Term for the major class of drugs used to treat mycoses.
  528. Dermatophytic
    Relating to a superficial fungal infection.
  529. Dysentery
    Severe diarrhea that may include bleeding.
  530. Ergosterol
    Lipid substance in fungal cell membranes.
  531. Erythrocytic stage
    Phase in malaria during which infected red blood cells rupture, releasing merozoites and causing fever and chills.
  532. Fungi
    Kingdom of organisms that includes mushrooms, yeasts, and molds.
  533. Helminth
    Type of flat, round, or segmented worm.
  534. Malaria
    Tropical disease characterized by severe fever and chills caused by the protozoan Plasmodium.
  535. Merozoites
    Transformation of sporozoites carried by the blood to the liver inside the human host where they multiply into millions of progeny.
  536. Mycoses
    Diseases caused by fungi.
  537. Polyene
    Antifungal class containing amphotericin B and nystatin.
  538. Protozoa
    Single-celled organisms that inhabit water, soil, and animal hosts.
  539. Yeast
    Type of fungus that is unicellular and divides by budding.
  540. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    Infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  541. Antiretroviral
    Drug that is effective against retroviruses.
  542. Capsid
    Protein coat that surrounds a virus.
  543. CD4 receptor
    Protein that accepts HIV and allows entry of the virus into the T4 lymphocyte.
  544. Hepatitis
    Viral infection of the liver.
  545. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
    Drug therapy for HIV infection that includes high doses of multiple medications given concurrently.
  546. HIV-AIDS
    Acronym for human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome; characterized by profound immunosuppression that leads to opportunistic infections and malignancies not commonly found in patients with functioning immune defenses.
  547. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    The causative agent for AIDS.
  548. Influenza
    Common viral infection; often called flu.
  549. Intracellular parasite
    Infectious microbe that lives inside host cells.
  550. Latent phase (of HIV infection)
    Period of HIV infection during which there are no symptoms.
  551. Pegylation
    Process that attaches polyethylene glycol (PEG) to an interferon to extend its pharmacologic activity.
  552. Protease
    Viral enzyme that is responsible for the final assembly of the HIV virions.
  553. Reverse transcriptase
    Viral enzyme that converts RNA to DNA.
  554. Viral load
    A measurement of HIV RNA levels in the blood which provides an estimate of how rapidly the virus is replicating.
  555. Virion
    Particle of a virus capable of causing an infection.
  556. Virus
    Nonliving particle containing nucleic acid that is able to cause disease.
  557. Adjuvant chemotherapy
    Technique in which antineoplastics are administered after surgery or radiation to effect a cure.
  558. Alkylation
    Process by which certain chemicals attach to DNA and change its structure and function.
  559. Alopecia
    Hair loss.
  560. Aromatase inhibitor
    Hormone inhibitor that blocks the enzyme aromatase, which normally converts adrenal androgen to estradiol.
  561. Camptothecin
    Class of antineoplastics that inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase.
  562. Cancer/carcinoma
    Malignant disease characterized by rapidly growing, invasive cells that spread to other regions of the body and eventually kill the host.
  563. Chemotherapy
    Drug treatment of cancer.
  564. Emetic potential
    Usually applied to antineoplastic agents; degree to which an agent is likely to trigger the vomiting center in the medulla, resulting in nausea and vomiting.
  565. Growth fraction
    The ratio of the number of replicating cells to resting cells in a tumor.
  566. Metastasis
    Travel of cancer cells from their original site to a distant tissue.
  567. Mucositis
    Inflammation of the epithelial lining of the digestive tract.
  568. Nadir
    Lowest values of erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts caused by chemotherapy.
  569. Neoplasm
    Abnormal swelling or mass; same as tumor.
  570. Palliation
    Form of cancer chemotherapy intended to alleviate symptoms rather than cure the disease.
  571. Taxane
    Alkaloids isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew and used for antineoplastic activity; current drugs include paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere), but more than 19 others are being investigated.
  572. Topoisomerase I
    Enzyme that assists in the repair of DNA damage.
  573. Tumor
    Abnormal swelling or mass.
  574. Vesicant
    Agent that can cause serious tissue injury if it escapes from an artery or vein during an infusion or injection (extravasation); many antineoplastics are vesicants.
  575. Vinca alkaloids
    Chemical obtained from the periwinkle plant that has antineoplastic activity.
  576. Allergen
    Anything that is recognized as foreign by the body's defense system; also called antigen.
  577. Allergic rhinitis
    Inflammation of the nasal mucosa due to exposure to allergens.
  578. Antitussives
    Drugs used to suppress cough.
  579. Expectorant
    Drug used to increase bronchial secretions.
  580. H1 receptors
    Site located on smooth muscle cells in the bronchial tree and blood vessels that is stimulated by histamine to produce bronchodilation and vasodilation.
  581. Mucolytic
    Drugs used to loosen thick mucus.
  582. Rebound congestion
    Adverse effect of intranasal decongestants; prolonged use causes hypersecretion of mucus and worsening nasal congestion once the drug effects wear off.
  583. Aerosol
    Suspension of minute liquid droplets or fine solid particles in a gas.
  584. Asthma
    Chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs characterized by airway obstruction.
  585. Bronchospasm
    Rapid constriction of the airways.
  586. Chronic bronchitis
    Recurrent disease of the lungs characterized by excess mucus production, inflammation, and coughing.
  587. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    Generic term used to describe several pulmonary conditions characterized by cough, mucus production, and impaired gas exchange.
  588. Dry powder inhaler (DPI)
    Device used to convert a solid drug to a fine powder for the purpose of inhalation.
  589. Emphysema
    Terminal lung disease characterized by permanent dilation of the alveoli.
  590. Leukotrienes
    Chemical mediator of inflammation stored and released by mast cells; effects are similar to those of histamine.
  591. Metered dose inhaler (MDI)
    Device used to deliver a precise amount of drug to the respiratory system.
  592. Methylxanthine
    Chemical derivative of caffeine.
  593. Nebulizer
    Device used to convert liquid drugs into a fine mist for the purpose of inhalation.
  594. Perfusion
    Blood flow through a tissue or organ.
  595. Status asthmaticus
    Severe, prolonged form of asthma unresponsive to drug treatment that may lead to respiratory failure.
  596. Ventilation
    Process by which air is moved into and out of the lungs.
  597. Antacid
    Drug that neutralizes stomach acid.
  598. Antiflatulent
    Agent that reduces gas bubbles in the stomach and intestines, thereby decreasing bloating and discomfort.
  599. Chief cells
    Cells located in the mucosa of the stomach that secrete pepsinogen, an inactive form of the enzyme pepsin that chemically breaks down proteins.
  600. Esophageal reflux
    Backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus.
  601. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    Regurgitation of stomach contents into the esophagus.
  602. H+, K+- ATPase
    Enzyme responsible for pumping acid onto the mucosal surface of the stomach.
  603. H2-receptor antagonist
    Drug that inhibits the effects of histamine at its receptors in the GI tract.
  604. Helicobacter pylori
    Bacterium associated with a large percentage of peptic ulcer disease.
  605. Intrinsic factor
    Chemical substance secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.
  606. Milk-alkali syndrome
    Syndrome caused by the administration of calcium carbonate antacids with milk or food containing vitamin D; symptoms include headache, urinary frequency, anorexia, nausea, and fatigue.
  607. Mucosa layer
    Inner lining of the alimentary canal that provides a surface area for the various acids, bases, and enzymes to break down food.
  608. Parietal cells
    Cells in the stomach mucosa that secretes hydrochloric acid.
  609. Peptic ulcer
    Erosion of the mucosa in the alimentary canal, most commonly in the stomach and duodenum.
  610. Peristalsis
    Involuntary wavelike contraction of smooth muscle lining the alimentary canal.
  611. Proton pump inhibitor
    Drug that inhibits the enzyme H+K+ -ATPase.
  612. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
    Disorder of excess acid secretion in the stomach resulting in peptic ulcer disease.
  613. Anorexiant
    Drug used to suppress appetite.
  614. Antiemetic
    Drug that prevents vomiting.
  615. Body mass index (BMI)
    Measurement of obesity determined by dividing body weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meters).
  616. Cathartic
    Substance that causes complete evacuation of the bowel.
  617. Chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)
    Location in the cerebral cortex which sends sensory signals to the vomiting center.
  618. Constipation
    Infrequent passage of abnormally hard and dry stools.
  619. Crohn's disease
    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the ileum and sometimes the colon.
  620. Diarrhea
    Abnormal frequency and liquidity of bowel movements.
  621. Emesis
  622. Emetics
    Drug used to induce vomiting.
  623. Emetogenic potential
    The capacity of a chemotherapeutic drug to cause vomiting.
  624. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    Disease characterized by the presence of ulcers in the distal portion of the small intestine (Crohn's disease) or mucosal erosions in the large intestine (ulcerative colitis).
  625. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    Inflammatory disease of the small or large intestine characterized by intense abdominal cramping and diarrhea.
  626. Laxative
    Drug that promotes defecation.
  627. Lipase inhibitors
    Drugs that block the enzyme that breaks down lipids.
  628. Nausea
    Uncomfortable wavelike sensation that precedes vomiting.
  629. Steatorrhea
    The passing of bulky, foul-smelling fatty stools.
  630. Ulcerative colitis
    Inflammatory bowel disease of the colon.
  631. Beriberi
    Deficiency of thiamine.
  632. Carotene
    Class of yellow-red pigments that are precursors to vitamin A.
  633. Enteral nutrition
    Nutrients supplied orally or by feeding tube.
  634. Ergocalciferol
    Activated form of vitamin D.
  635. Hypervitaminosis
    Excess intake of vitamins.
  636. Macromineral (major mineral)
    Inorganic compound needed by the body in amounts of 100 mg or more daily.
  637. Micromineral (trace mineral)
    Inorganic compound needed by the body in amounts of 20 mg or less daily.
  638. Parenteral nutrition
    The administration of high caloric nutrients via a central vein, such as the subclavian vein.
  639. Pellagra
    Deficiency of niacin.
  640. Pernicious (megaloblastic) anemia
    Type of anemia usually caused by lack of secretion of intrinsic factor.
  641. Provitamins
    Inactive chemical that is converted to a vitamin in the body.
  642. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    Amount of vitamin or mineral needed each day to avoid a deficiency in a healthy adult.
  643. Scurvy
    Deficiency of vitamin C.
  644. Tocopherol
    Generic name for vitamin E.
  645. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
    Nutrition provided through a peripheral or central vein.
  646. Undernutrition
    Lack of adequate nutrition to meet the metabolic demands of the body.
  647. Vitamins
    Organic compound required by the body in small amounts.
  648. Addison's disease
    Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone by the adrenal cortex.
  649. Adenohypophysis
    Anterior portion of the pituitary gland.
  650. Adrenocortical insufficiency
    Lack of adequate corticosteroid secretion by the adrenal gland.
  651. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex.
  652. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    Hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland when blood pressure falls or when the osmotic pressure of the blood increases.
  653. Basal metabolic rate
    Resting rate of metabolism in the body.
  654. Cushing's syndrome
    Condition of having an excessive concentration of corticosteroids in the blood; caused by excessive secretion by the adrenal glands or by overdosage with corticosteroid medication.
  655. Diabetes insipidus
    Disorder marked by excessive urination due to lack of secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
  656. Follicular cells
    Cells in the thyroid gland that secrete thyroid hormone.
  657. Graves' disease
    Syndrome caused by hypersecretion of thyroid hormone.
  658. Hormone
    Chemical secreted by endocrine glands that acts as a chemical messenger to affect homeostasis.
  659. Myxedema
    Condition caused by insufficient secretion of thyroid hormone.
  660. Neurohypophysis
    Posterior portion of the pituitary gland.
  661. Parafollicular cells
    Cells in the thyroid gland that secrete calcitonin.
  662. Releasing hormone
    Hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that affects secretions in the pituitary gland.
  663. Short stature
    Height below the fifth percentile for age and gender, or more than two standard deviations below the mean (average) for age and gender.
  664. Somatotropin
    Another name for growth hormone.
  665. Thyroid storm
    A rare, life-threatening form of thyrotoxicosis; also called thyroid crisis.
  666. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
    A plasma protein produced in the liver.
  667. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
    A type of metabolic acidosis due to an excess of ketone bodies, most often occurring when diabetes mellitus is uncontrolled.
  668. Glucagon
    Acts to increase blood glucose levels.
  669. Gluconeogenesis
    The production of "new" glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules.
  670. Hyperglycemic effect
    Causes blood glucose to rise.
  671. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS)
    Acute complication seen in persons with type 2 diabetes, that is characterized by extreme hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity with dehydration, the absence of ketoacidosis, and CNS dysfunction
  672. Hypoglycemic effect
    Causes glucose to leave the blood and serum glucose to fall.
  673. Insulin
    Acts to decrease blood glucose levels.
  674. Insulin analog
    Modified human insulin with pharmacokinetic advantages, such as more rapid onset of action or prolonged duration of action.
  675. Insulin resistance
    Occurs in type 2 diabetes mellitus; although insulin is secreted, insulin receptors in target tissues become insensitive to insulin, binding of insulin to these receptors decreases, less effect is achieved.
  676. Islets of Langerhans
    Cell clusters in the pancreas responsible for the secretion of insulin and glucagon.
  677. Ketoacids
    Acidic waste product of lipid metabolism that lowers the pH of the blood.
  678. Somogyi phenomenon
    Rapid decrease in blood glucose level that stimulates the release of hormones (epinephrine, cortisol, glucagon) resulting in an elevated morning blood glucose.
  679. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus
    Metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia caused by a lack of secretion of insulin by the pancreas.
  680. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus
    Chronic metabolic disease caused by insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas, and a lack of sensitivity of insulin receptors.
  681. orpus luteum
    Ruptured follicle that remains in the ovary after ovulation and secretes progestins.
  682. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
    Hemorrhage that occurs at abnormal times or in excessive quantity during the menstrual cycle.
  683. Endometriosis
    Presence of endometrial tissue in nonuterine locations such as the pelvis and ovaries; a common cause of infertility.
  684. Estrogen
    Class of steroid sex hormones secreted by the ovary.
  685. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates sperm or egg production.
  686. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    Hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
  687. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
    Drug therapy consisting of estrogen and progestin combinations; used to treat symptoms associated with menopause.
  688. Infertility
    Inability to become pregnant after at least 1 year of frequent, unprotected intercourse.
  689. Leutinizing hormone (LH)
    Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that triggers ovulation in the female and stimulates sperm production in the male.
  690. Menopause
    Period of time during which females stop secreting estrogen and menstrual cycles cease.
  691. Ovulation
    Release of an egg by the ovary.
  692. Oxytocics
    Agents that stimulate uterine contractions to promote the induction of labor.
  693. Progesterone
    Hormone secreted by the corpus luteum and placenta responsible for building up the uterine lining in the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.
  694. Prostaglandin
    Class of local hormones that promote local inflammation and pain when released by cells in the body.
  695. Tocolytic
    Drug used to inhibit uterine contractions.
  696. Anabolic steroids
    Compounds resembling testosterone with hormonal activity commonly abused by athletes.
  697. Androgens
    Steroid sex hormones that promote the appearance of masculine characteristics.
  698. Azoospermia
    Complete absence of sperm in an ejaculate.
  699. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
    Nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland.
  700. Corpora cavernosa
    The major erectile tissues of the penis.
  701. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates sperm or egg production.
  702. Hypogonadism
    Below-normal secretion of the steroid sex hormones.
  703. Impotence
    Inability to obtain or sustain an erection; also called erectile dysfunction.
  704. Leutinizing hormone (LH)
    Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that triggers ovulation in the female and stimulates sperm production in the male.
  705. Libido
    Interest in sexual activity.
  706. Oligospermia
    Presence of less than 20 million sperm in an ejaculate.
  707. Testosterone
    Primary androgen responsible for maturation of male sex organs and secondary sex characteristics of men; secreted by testes.
  708. Virilization
    Appearance of masculine secondary sex characteristics.