BIOL 189 Final - Deck 3

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Geoff
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95410
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BIOL 189 Final - Deck 3
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2011-07-27 13:25:25
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BIOL Final
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Deck 3 study cards BIOL 189 CSN
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  1. What is a kinetichore?
    a protein area located on the centromere where the microtubules will attach
  2. When does DNA replication occur?
    during the S subphase of Interphase
  3. In which phase of mitosis are both sister chromatids attached to the microtubules?
    metaphase
  4. In which phase of mitosis are the chromosomes lined up at the metaphase plate?
    metaphase
  5. In which phase of mitosis are the chromosomes pulled towards the opposite poles?
    anaphase
  6. Which phase of mitosis is the shortest?
    anaphase
  7. Which phase of mitosis is the longest?
    metaphase
  8. What occurs during cytokinesis?
    division of the cytoplasm
  9. What is a homologous pair?
    a single set of chromosomes, one from mom and one from dad, that code for the same traits
  10. What is a replicated homologous pair?
    a set of chromosomes with 2 sister chromatids each (total of 4 chromatids)
  11. What are non-sister chromatids?
    two chromatids that are part of a replicated homologous pair that are not identical
  12. What are sister chromatids?
    two identical replicated chromosomes
  13. In which phase of meiosis I are the homologous chromosomes attached to the microtubules?
    metaphase I
  14. In which phase of meiosis I do we see "crossing over?"
    prophase I
  15. In which phase of meiosis I do we see chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate?
    metaphase I
  16. In which phase of meiosis I do the homologous chromosomes separate and pull towards opposite poles?
    anaphase I
  17. In which phase of meiosis II do chromosomes line up at metaphase plate?
    metaphase II
  18. In which phase of meiosis II do we see the separation of sister chromatids?
    anaphase II
  19. In which phase of meiosis II do the sister chromatids pull toward opposite poles?
    anaphase II
  20. In which phase of meiosis II do the microtubules attach?
    metaphase II
  21. How many chromosomes will cells contain following DNA replication?
    46, but each chromosome has two sister chromatids
  22. At the end of meiosis I, are the cells that result haploid or diploid, and how many chromosomes do they contain?
    haploid, 23 with sister chromatids
  23. At the end of meiosis II are the resulting cells haploid or diploid, and how many chromosomes do they contain?
    haploid, 23
  24. Which process exhibits a greater number of nuclear divisions, mitosis or meiosis?
    meiosis has 2, while mitosis only 1
  25. Which process, mitosis or meiosis, results in fewer daughter cells?
    mitosis has 2 daughter cells, while meiosis has 4
  26. Which process, mitosis or meiosis, results in diploid daughter cells?
    mitosis
  27. Which process results in genetically identical daughter cells, mitosis or meiosis?
    mitosis
  28. List the phases of mitosis and meiosis that are similar?
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  29. What is a genetic character?
    an inheritable feature among individuals
  30. What is a trait?
    variations in a genetic character
  31. How is a trait different from a character?
    • a character is feature such as eye color
    • a trait is the variation of the feature such as blue, brown, or green
  32. When a phenotype can be determined by more than one allele, it is known as:
    multiple alleles
  33. What happens when nondisjunction occurs?
    an improper separation of chromosomes during meiosis
  34. If nondisjunction occurs during meiosis I, what chromosomal distribution will your gametes have?
    • 2(n+1)
    • 2(n-1)
  35. If nondisjuntion occurs during meiosis II, what chromosomal distribution will you have?
    • 2(n)
    • 1(n+1)
    • 1(n-1)
  36. In which phase of meiosis, I or II, will nondisjunction result in 100% of the gametes being abnormal?
    meiosis I
  37. What sugar is part of the DNA backbone?
    deoxyribose
  38. At which carbon will the phosphate attach to deoxyribose?
    5' carbon
  39. How does one sugar-phosphate (A) connect to the next sugar-phosphate (B)?
    phosphate of A covalently bonds to the 3' carbon of B
  40. To which carbon do the nucleotides attach?
    1' carbon
  41. What enzyme unwinds DNA?
    helicase
  42. What enzyme adds nucleotides to the new DNA strand?
    DNA polymerase III
  43. What enzyme will fill in the blanks after the primers are removed?
    DNA polymerase I
  44. Where does translation occur?
    in the cytoplasm
  45. How do the nucleotides actually pair up?
    purine + pyrimadine
  46. What is the function of primase?
    to manufacture the short RNA primer
  47. What role does topoisomerase play in the DNA unwinding process?
    it moves ahead of helicase, breaking hydrogen bonds, and releasing tension in the strand
  48. What type of bond connects the complementary bases?
    hydrogen bonds
  49. What role do spliceosomes play in RNA processing?
    they "cut out" the introns and link together the exons
  50. What is the function of single strand binding protein?
    to stabilize the DNA strands after helicase has separated them, and keep them held apart

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