Chapter 14: Gastrointestinal System; Anatomical Terms

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  1. oral cavity
    cavity that receives food for digestion
  2. salivary glands
    three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
  3. cheeks
    lateral walls of the mouth
  4. lips
    fleshy structures surrounding the mouth
  5. palate
    structure that forms the roof of the mouth, it is divided into the hard and soft palate
  6. uvula
    small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate
  7. tongue
    muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and held down by a band-like membrane known and the frenulum
  8. gums
    tissue covering the processes of the jaws
  9. teeth
    hard bony projections in the jaws that serve to masticate (chew) food
  10. pharynx
    throat; passageway for food traveling to the esophagus and air traveling to the larynx
  11. esophagus
    muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
  12. stomach
    sac-like organ that chemically mixes and prepares food received from the esophagus
  13. cardiac sphincter
    opening from the esophagus to the stomach
  14. pyloric sphincter
    opening of the stomach into the duodenum
  15. small intestine
    tubular structure that digests food received from the stomach
  16. duodenum
    first portion of the small intestine
  17. jejunum
    second portion of the small intestine
  18. ileum
    third portion of the small intestine
  19. large intestine
    larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
  20. cecum
    first part of the large intestine
  21. vermiform appendix
    worm-like projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function - may serve to resist infection
  22. colon
    portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum; identified by direction or shape
  23. ascending colon
    portion that extends upward from the cecum
  24. transverse colon
    portion that extends across from the ascending colon
  25. descending colon
    portion that extends down from the transverse colon
  26. sigmoid colon
    portion that terminates at the rectum
  27. rectum
    distal (end) portion of the large intestine
  28. rectal ampulla
    dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal
  29. anus
    opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
  30. feces
    refuse; solid waste formed in the large intestine
  31. defecation
    evacuation of feces from the rectum
  32. peritoneum
    membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity consisting of the parietal layer (lining of the abdominal wall) and visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)
  33. peritoneal cavity
    space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
  34. omentum
    a covering; an extension of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and connecting it with other abdominal organs
  35. liver
    organ in the upper right quadrant that produces bile, which is secreted into the duodenum during digestion
  36. gallbladder
    receptacle that stores and concentrates the bile produced in the liver
  37. pancreas
    gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food
  38. biliary ducts
    ducts that convey bile, including hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts
  39. hypochondriac regions
    upper lateral regions beneath the ribs
  40. epigastric region
    upper middle region below the sternum
  41. lumbar regions
    middle lateral regions
  42. umbilical region
    region of the navel
  43. inguinal regions
    lower lateral groin regions
  44. hypogastric region
    region below the navel
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Chapter 14: Gastrointestinal System; Anatomical Terms
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