ps 3

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  1. tetanus of cardiac muscle is prevented by:
    a long refractory period
  2. blood flow through all organs is:
    passive and occurs only because arterial presure is kept higher than venuous pressure dup to pumping of the heart
  3. term for action potentials generated by the heart:
  4. Where is the sino atrial node?
    the right atrium
  5. what divides the heart?
    the septum
  6. heart Oo. what do calcuim channel-blocking drugs do?
    reduce calcium influx during an action potential and reduce the force of contraction
  7. What is the most serious arrhythmia?
    ventricular fibrillation which is when the wave of depolarization may re-enter and produce circular movements around the heart. the muscle only quivers -> patient loses consciousness and dies
  8. What happens if the atria fibrillate?
    the heart continues to pumt but with lower ouput.
  9. what are the layers of the arteries?
    • inner layer- simple squamous epithelium == endothelium
    • middle layer - smooth muscle and elsastic connective tissue
    • outer layer- elastic and collagen fibers
  10. veins]?[arteries
    veins have a thicker outer layer, thinner middle layer, and very thin endothelial layer that fols inward at intervals forming valves
  11. mean arterial pressure = X pulse pressue?
  12. what is arterial blood pressure measured with?
    a sphygmomanometer
  13. what is the name for the first sound heard via the stethescope that corresonds to systolic blood pressure?
    Korotkoff's sounds
  14. What is the major resistance vessels of the circulatory system?
  15. systolic-to-diastolic swings in pressure conver to ____ as blood flows through the arterioles
    nonpulsatile pressure
  16. 2 mechanism of arterial pressure =
    • fast, neurally mediated baroreceptor reflex (stretch receptors in the carotid sinus (.oO neck) -> increases firing of the cartid sinus nerse -> vasomotor center in the brainstem |?:. lowers pressure .:|
    • a slow, hormonal mechanism which regulates blood volume (ADH and aldosterone)
  17. hemostasis consists of what 3 processes?
    vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation, blood clot formation
  18. 3 steps of blood clotting:
    • 1. formation of prothrombinase (prothrombin activator)
    • 2. conversion of prothrombin (formed by liver) into thrombin (a proteolytic enzyme) by prothrombinase
    • 3. conversion of frbrinogen (solbume plasma protein formed by liver) intofibrin (insoluble) by thrombin
  19. extrinsic coagulation pathy way is initiated by ___
    a tissue factor (thromboplastin)
  20. sarcomere shortening is known as :
    the sliding-filament mechanism
  21. which part of the sarcomere shortens during contraction?
    the i-band
  22. role of calcium in muscle contraction (skeletal):
    calcium ions trigger muscle contractino by binding to one of the molecules in troponin, causing a change in the shape of the molecule such that tropomyosin slides away from its blocking position on actin molecules -> actin and myonsin bind to form the cross bridge
  23. brain]?[skull
    cerebrospinal fluid
  24. blood from the coronary arteries is returned to the heart via the:
    coronary sinus
  25. ____ is released from the thyroid gland
  26. proteolytic enzyme ___ converts fibrinogen to fibrin
  27. glucose is reabsorbed in the ___
    proximal tubule
  28. parasympathetic nerve stimulation ____ pacemaker cells in the SA node
  29. what stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus?
  30. what are the function of a nephron?
    to eliminate wates from the body, regulate blood volume, blood pressure, and blood ph, and to regulate electrolytes and metabolites
  31. in flow order: nephron (s)o. ?
    glomerular capillary, Bowman's space, proximal tubule, |loop of Henle :. thin descending limb, thin ascending limb, thick ascending limb, early distal tubule, late distal tubule}{collecting ducts
  32. angiotensinogen --?--> angiotensin
  33. what does angiotensin do?
    potent constrictor of blood vessels, acts on kidney's to release aldosterone, stimulates thirst via the hypothalamus
  34. what does aldosterone do?
    • increases reabsorbtion of Na and H2O and releases K into urine,
    • -->increases blood volume
    • --> stimulates ADH
    • mineralocorticoid .oO steriod
  35. epinephrine ==
  36. what is the leading cause of blindness?
    • diabetic retinopathy
    • Oo. protein glycosylation
  37. glycogen --?--> glucose
  38. how does insulin accelerate glycogen formation within a cell?
    bding to a plasma membrane receptor --> vesicles containing glucose carriers merge with the plasma membrane
  39. Where is a decrease in oxygen levels detected?
    in chemoreceptors at the top of the heart
  40. what are the layers of the heart and what is each layer composed of? (5 keywords)
    endocardium - then layer of endothelium, myocardium- cardiac muscle, epicardium- thin external membrane covering the heart .oO heart, pericardial fluid, pericardial sac
  41. what prevents backflow of blood into the heart?
    aortic and pulmonary}{semilunar valves
  42. cardiac output =
    stroke volume * beats/min
  43. what helps conduct cardiac muscle APs?
    gap junctions
  44. smooth muscle (s)o.?
    intermediate filaments which stretch between dense bodies, composed of the same proteins as in Z lines
  45. transverse tubules=
    invaginations of the plasma membrane into the muscle fiber occuring @ each junction of an A band and I bands
  46. anabolic steroids -->
    adverse effects (5):
    • hypertrophy of skeletal muscle
    • liver dysfunction, decreased sperm production, sterility in females, increased risk of heart disease, aggressive behavior
  47. the SR surrounds __
    each myofibril
  48. heart attack ==
  49. using a ballon catheter to try to remove a blood clot ==
  50. if a clot returns after angioplasty ==
  51. skeletal muscle (s)o. ___ Oo. ___ Oo. ___ Oo. ___ & ___
    muscle fasicle, muscle fiber (cell), myofibrils, thick and thin filaments
  52. in muscle contraction: Ca binds to ___
  53. fast][slow twitch skeletal muscle
    • slow: dark (many mitochondria), slow rate of hydrolysis of ATP on myosin
    • fast: white, less mitochondria, good for short busts of energy
  54. a gap junction contains
    aqueous pores
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ps 3
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