CHAPTER 1

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RX73
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95554
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CHAPTER 1
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2011-08-28 18:39:34
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HUMAN STRUCTURE FUNCTION CEDARVILLE
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HUMAN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
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  1. THE SCIENCE OF BODY STRUCTURES AND THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THEM.
    ANATOMY
  2. THE CAREFUL CUTTING APART OF BODY STRUCTURES TO STUDY THEIR RELATIONSHIPS.
    DISSECTION
  3. THE SCIENCE OF BODY FUNCTIONS.
    PHYSIOLOGY
  4. THE STUDY OF THE FIRST EIGHT WEEKS OF DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION OF AN EGG IN HUMANS.
    EMBRYOLOGY
  5. THE STUDY OF THE COMPLETE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIVIDUAL FROM FERTILIZATION OF AN EGG TO DEATH.
    DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
  6. THE STUDY OF CELLULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.
    CELL BIOLOGY
  7. THE STUDY OF THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF TISSUES.
    HISTOLOGY
  8. THE STUDY OF THE SURFACE MARKINGS OF THE BODY TO UNDERSTAND INTERNAL ANATOMY THROUGH VISUALIZATION AND PALPATION. (GENTLE TOUCH)
    SURFACE ANATOMY
  9. THE STUDY OF STRUCTURES THAT CAN BE EXAMINED WITHOUT USING A MICROSCOPE.
    GROSS ANATOMY
  10. THE STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF SPECIFIC SYSTEMS OF THE BODY SUCH AS THE NERVOUS OR RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS.
    SYSTEMIC ANATOMY
  11. THE STUDY OF THE SPECIFIC REGIONS OF THE BODY SUCH AS THE HEAD OR CHEST.
    REGIONAL ANATOMY
  12. THE STUDY OF THE BODY STRUCTURES THAT CAN BE VISUALIZED WITH X-RAYS.
    RADIOGRAPHIC ANATOMY
  13. THE STUDY OF THE STRUCTURAL CHANGES(FROM GROSS TO MICROSCOPIC) ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE.
    PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY
  14. THE STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF NERVE CELLS.
    NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
  15. THE STUDY OF HORMONES AND HOW THEY CONTROL BODY FUNCTIONS.
    ENDOCRINOLOGY
  16. THE STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS.
    CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
  17. THE STUDY OF HOW THE BODY DEFENDS ITSELF AGAINST DISEASE-CAUSING AGENTS.
    IMMUNOLOGY
  18. THE STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE AIR PASSAGEWAYS AND LUNGS.
    RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY
  19. THE STUDY OF THE FUNCTION OF THE KIDNEYS.
    RENAL PHYSIOLOGY
  20. THE STUDY OF THE CHANGES IN CELL AND ORGAN FUNCTIONS AS A RESULT OF MUSCULAR ACTIVITY.
    EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY
  21. THE STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE AND AGING.
    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  22. THE SMALLEST UNITS OF MATTER THAT PARTICIPATE IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS.
    ATOMS
  23. TWO OR MORE ATOMS JOINED TOGETHER.
    MOLECULE
  24. THE BASIC STRUCTUAL AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF AN ORGANISM.
    CELL
  25. THE 5 LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN THE HUMAN BODY.
    CHEMICAL, CELLULAR, TISSUE, ORGAN,SYSTEM
  26. GROUPS OF CELLS & THE MATERIALS SURROUNDING THEM THAT WORK TOGETHER TO PERFORM A PARTICULAR FUNCTION.
    TISSUES
  27. THE 4 BASIC TYPES OF TISSUE.
    EPITHELIAL, CONNECTIVE, MUSCULAR, NERVOUS
  28. THE STRUCTURES THAT ARE COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUES AND HAVE SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS WITH USUALLY RECOGNIZABLE SHAPES.
    ORGANS
  29. RELATED ORGANS WITH A COMMON FUNCTION.
    A SYSTEM
  30. ANY LIVING INDIVIDUAL.
    AN ORGANISM
  31. AN EXAMINATION DONE BY GENTLY TOUCHING (FEELING) BODY SURFACES WITH HANDS.
    PALPATION
  32. AN EXAMINATION DONE BY LISTENING TO BODY SOUNDS TO EVALUATE THE FUNCTIONING OF ORGANS.
    AUSCULTATION
  33. AN EXAMINATION DONE BY TAPPING ON THE BODY SURFACE WITH FINGERTIPS AND LISTENING TO THE RESULTING ECHO.
    PERCUSSION
  34. THE SUM OF ALL THE CHEMICAL PROCESSES THAT OCCUR IN THE BODY.
    METABOLISM
  35. THE BREAKDOWN OF COMPLEX CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES INTO SIMPLER COMPONENTS.
    CATABOLISM
  36. THE BUILDING UP OF COMPLEX CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES FROM SMALLER, SIMPLER COMPONENTS.
    ANABOLISM
  37. THE BODY'S ABILITY TO DETECT AND RESPOND TO CHANGES.
    RESPONSIVENESS
  38. MOTION OF THE WHOLE BODY, INDIVIDUAL ORGANS, SINGLE CELLS, AND STRUCTURES INSIDE OF CELLS.
    MOVEMENT
  39. AN INCREASE IN BODY SIZE THAT RESULTS FROM AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF EXISTING CELLS
  40. AN INCREASE IN BODY SIZE THAT RESULTS FROM AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF EXISTING CELLS, AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF CELLS, OR BOTH.
    GROWTH
  41. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CELL FROM AN UNSPECIALIZED TO A SPECIALIZED STATE.
    DIFFERENTIATION
  42. PRECURSOR CELLS WHICH CAN DIVIDE AND GIVE RISE TO CELLS THAT UNDERGO DIFFERENTIATION.
    STEM CELLS
  43. THE FORMATION OF NEW CELLS FOR TISSUE GROWTH, REPAIR, OR REPLACEMENT.
    REPRODUCTION
  44. A POSTMORTEM EXAMINATION OF THE BODY AND DISSECTION OF ITS INTERNAL ORGANS TO CONFIRM OR DETERMINE CAUSE OF DEATH.
    AUTOPSY
  45. THE CONDITION OF EQUILIBRIUM IN THE BODY'S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT DUE TO CONSTANT INTERACTION OF THE BODY'S REGULATORY PROCESSES.
    HOMEOSTASIS
  46. DILUTE, WATERY SOLUTIONS CONTAINING DISSOLVED CHEMICALS THAT ARE FOUND INSIDE & OUTSIDE CELLS.
    BODY FLUIDS
  47. THE FLUID INSIDE OF CELLS.
    INTRACELLULAR FLUID (ICF)
  48. THE FLUID OUTSIDE BODY CELLS.
    EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (ECF)
  49. THE ECF THAT FILLS THE NARROW SPACES BETWEEN CELLS OF TISSUES.
    INTERSTITIAL FLUID
  50. THE ECF WITHIN BLOOD VESSELS.
    BLOOD PLASMA
  51. THE ECF WITHIN LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
    LYMPH
  52. THE ECF AROUND THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD.
    CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
  53. THE ECF IN JOINTS.
    SYNOVIAL FLUID
  54. THE ECF IN THE EYES
    AQUEOUS HUMOR & VITREOUS BODY
  55. A CYCLE OF EVENTS IN WHICH THE STATUS OF A BODY CONDITION IS MONITORED, EVALUATED, CHANGED, REMONITORED, REEVALUATED, ETC.
    FEEDBACK SYSTEM (FEEDBACK LOOP)
  56. A MONITORED VARIABLE LIKE BODY TEMPERATURE OR BLOOD PRESSURE.
    CONTROLLED CONDITION
  57. A DISRUPTION THAT CHANGES A CONTROLLED CONDITION.
    STIMULUS
  58. A BODY STRUCTURE THAT MONITORS CHANGES IN A CONTROLLED CONDITION AND SENDS INPUT TO A CONTROL CENTER.
    RECEPTOR
  59. AN ORGAN THAT SETS THE RANGE OF VALUES WITHIN WHICH A CONTROLLED CONDTITION SHOULD BE MAINTAINED, EVALUTATES THE INPUT AND GENERATES OUTPUT WHEN NEEDED.
    CONTROL CENTER
  60. A BODY STRUCTURE THAT RECIEVES OUTPUT FROM THE CONTROL CENTER AND PRODUCES A RESPONSE OR EFFECT THAT CHANGES THE CONTROLLED CONDITION.
    EFFECTOR
  61. A FEEDBACK SYSTEM THAT REVERSES A CHANGE IN A CONTROLLED CONDITION.
    NEGATIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM
  62. A FEEDBACK SYSTEM THAT TENDS TO STRENGTHEN OR REINFORE A CHANGE IN ONE OF THE BODY'S CONTROLLED CONDITIONS.
    POSTIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM
  63. ANY ABNORMALTY OF STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION.
    DISORDER
  64. AN ILLNESS CHARACTERIZED BY A RECOGNIZABLE SET OF SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS.
    DISEASE
  65. SUBJECTIVE CHANGES IN BODY FUNCTIONS THAT ARE NOT APPARENT TO AN OBSERVER.
    SYMPTOMS
  66. OBJECTIVE CHANGES THAT A CLINICIAN CAN OBSERVE AND MEASURE.
    SIGNS
  67. THE SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH WHY, WHEN, AND WHERE DISEASES OCCUR AND HOW THEY ARE TRANSMITTED.
    EPIDEMIOLOGY
  68. THE SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH EFFECTS AND USES OF DRUG IN THE TREATMENT OF DISEASE.
    PHARMACOLOGY
  69. THE SCIENCE AND SKILL OF DISTINGUISHING ONE DISORDER OR DISEASE FROM ANOTHER.
    DIAGNOSIS
  70. POSITION WHERE SUBJECT STANDS ERECT FACING THE OBSERVER, WITH THE HEAD LEVEL AND THE EYES FACING DIRECTLY FORWARD, FEET FLAT ON FLOOR & DIRECTED FORWARD, & THE UPPER LIMBS ARE AT THE SIDES WITH THE PALMS TURNED FORWARD.
    ANATOMICAL POSITION
  71. BODY LYING FACE DOWN.
    PRONE POSITION
  72. BODY LYING FACE UP
    SUPINE POSITION
  73. THE REGION OF THE BODY THAT CONSISTS OF THE SKULL AND FACE.
    HEAD
  74. PART OF THE BODY THAT SUPPORTS THE HEAD AND ATTACHES IT TO THE TRUNK.
    NECK
  75. THE REGION OF THE BODY THE CONSISTS OF THE CHEST, ABDOMEN, AND PELVIS.
    TRUNK
  76. THE REGION OF THE BODY THAT ATTACHES TO THE TRUNK AND CONSISTS OF SHOULDER, ARMPIT, ARM, FOREARM AND HAND.
    UPPER LIMB
  77. THE REGION OF THE BODY THAT ATTACHES TO THE TRUNK AND CONSISTS OF THE BUTTOCK, THIGH, LEG, ANKLE, AND FOOT.
    LOWER LIMB
  78. WORDS THAT DESCRIBE THE POSITION OF ONE BODY PART RELATIVE TO ANOTHER.
    DIRECTIONAL TERMS
  79. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS FRONT.
    ANTERIOR
  80. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS BACK.
    POSTERIOR
  81. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS TOWARD THE UPPER PART OF THE BODY.
    SUPERIOR
  82. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS TOWARD THE LOWER PART OF THE BODY.
    INFERIOR
  83. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS NEARER THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY.
    MEDIAL
  84. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS FARTHER FROM THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY.
    LATERAL
  85. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS BETWEEN TWO STRUCTURES.
    INTERMEDIATE
  86. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE BODY AS ANOTHER STRUCTURE.
    IPSILATERAL
  87. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE BODY FROM ANOTHER STRUCTURE.
    CONTRALATERAL
  88. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS NEARER TO THE ATTACHMENT OF A LIMB TO THE TRUNK, NEARER TO THE ORIGINATION OF A STRUCTURE.
    PROXIMAL
  89. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS FURTHER FROM THE ATTACHMENT OF A LIMB TO THE TRUNK, FARTHER FROM THE ORIGINATION OF A STRUCTURE.
    DISTAL
  90. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS TOWARD OR ON THE SURFACE OF THE BODY.
    SUPERFICIAL (EXTERNAL)
  91. DIRECTIONAL TERM THAT MEANS AWAY FROM THE SURFACE OF THE BODY.
    DEEP (INTERNAL)
  92. IMAGINARY FLAT SURFACES THAT PASS THROUGH THE BODY PARTS.
    PLANES
  93. A VERTICAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY OR AN ORGAN INTO RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES.
    SAGITTAL PLANE
  94. A PLANE THAT PASSES THROUGH THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY OR AN ORGAN, DIVIDING IT INTO EQUAL RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES.
    MIDSAGITTAL PLANE (MEDIAN PLANE)
  95. A SAGITTAL PLANE THAT DOES NOT PLASS THROUGH THE MIDLINE BUT INSTEAD DIVIDES THE BODY OR ORGAN INTO UNEQUAL RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES.
    PARASAGITTAL PLANE
  96. A PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY OR ORGAN INTO ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR PORTIONS.
    FRONTAL OR CORONAL PLANE
  97. A PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY OR AN ORGAN INTO SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR PORTIONS.
    TRANSVERSE PLANE (CROSS-SECTIONAL OR HORTZONTAL PLANE)
  98. A PLANE THAT PASSES THROUGH THE BODY OR AN ORGAN AT AN ANGLE BETWEEN A TRANSVERSE & SAGITTAL PLANE OR BETWEEN A TRANSVERSE & FRONTAL PLANE.
    OBLIQUE PLANE
  99. A CUT OF THE BODY OR ONE OF ITS ORGANS MADE ALONG ONE OF THE PLANES.
    SECTION
  100. SPACES WITHIN THE BODY THAT HELP PROTECT, SEPARATE, AND SUPPORT INTERNAL ORGANS.
    BODY CAVITIES
  101. FORMED BY THE CRANIAL BONES AND CONTAINS THE BRAIN.
    CRANIAL CAVITY
  102. FORMED BY THE BONES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND CONTAINS THE SPINAL CORD.
    VERTEBRAL (SPINAL) CANAL
  103. THREE LAYERS OF PROTECTIVE TISSUE THAT LINE THE CRANIAL CAVITY AND THE VERTEBRAL CANAL.
    MENINGES
  104. FORMED BY THE RIBS, MUSCLES OF THE CHEST, STERNUM, AND THE THORACIC PORTION OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN.
    THORACIC CAVITY
  105. A FLUID-FILLED SPACE THAT SURROUNDS THE HEART WITHIN THE THORACIC CAVITY.
    PERICARDIAL CAVITY
  106. TWO FLUID-FILLED SPACES, ONE AROUND EACH LUNG WITHIN THE THORACIC CAVITY.
    PLEURAL CAVITIES
  107. THE CENTRAL PART OF THE THORACIC CAVITY.
    MEDIASTINUM
  108. THE DOME-SHAPED MUSCLE THAT SEPARATES THE THORACIC CAVITY FROM THE ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY.
    DIAPHRAGM
  109. THE SUPERIOR PORTION OF THE ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY THAT CONTAINS THE STOMACH, SPLEEN, LIVER, GALLBLADDER, SMALL INTESTINE, & MOST OF LARGE INTESTINE.
    ABDOMINAL CAVITY
  110. THE INFERIOR PORTION OF THE ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY THAT CONTAINS THE BLADDER, PART OF THE LARGE INTESTINE, & INTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.
    PELVIC CAVITY
  111. ORGANS INSIDE THE THORACIC & ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITIES
    VISCERA
  112. THIN, SLIPPERY, DOUBLE LAYERED MEMBRANE THAT COVERS THE VISCERA WITHIN THE THORACIC & ABDOMINAL CAVITIES.
    SEROUS MEMBRANE
  113. PART OF THE SEROUS MEMBRANE THAT LINE THE WALLS OF THE CAVITIES.
    PARIETAL LAYER
  114. PART OF THE SEROUS MEMBRANE THAT COVERS & ADHERES TO THE VISCERA WITHIN THE CAVITIES.
    VISCERAL LAYER
  115. THE SEROUS MEMBRANE OF THE PLEURAL CAVITIES.
    PLEURA
  116. THE SEROUS MEMBRANE OF THE PERICARDIAL CAVITY.
    PERICARDIUM
  117. THE SEROUS MEMBRANE OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
    PERITONEUM
  118. ORGANS LOCATED BETWEEN THE PARIETAL PERITONEUM & THE POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL.
    RETROPERITONEAL
  119. CAVITY WHICH CONTAINS THE TONGUE AND TEETH.
    ORAL CAVITY (MOUTH)
  120. CAVITY WHICH IS LOCATED IN THE NOSE.
    NASAL CAVITY
  121. CAVITY WHICH CONTAINS THE EYEBALLS.
    ORBITAL CAVITIES
  122. CAVITY WHICH CONTAINS THE SMALL BONES OF THE EAR.
    MIDDLE EAR CAVITIES
  123. CAVITIES THAT ARE FOUND IN FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS AND CONTAIN SYNOVIAL FLUID.
    SYNOVIAL CAVITIES
  124. TECHNIQUES & PROCEDURES USED TO CREATE IMAGES OF THE HUMAN BODY.
    MEDICAL IMAGING
  125. X-RAYS OF THE BREAST.
    MAMMOGRAPHY
  126. X-RAYS USED FOR DETERMING BONE DENSITY.
    BONE DENSITOMETRY
  127. CONTRAST X-RAYS TO IMAGE BLOOD VESSELS.
    ANGIOGRAPHY
  128. CONTRAST X-RAYS USED TO IMAGE THE URINARY SYSTEM.
    INTRAVENOUS UROGRAPHY
  129. CONTRAST X-RAYS USED TO IMAGINE THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
    BARIUM CONTRAST X-RAY
  130. THE VISUAL EXAMINATION OF THE INSIDE OF BODY ORGANS OR CAVITIES USING A LIGHTED INSTRUMENT WITH A LENSE.
    ENDOSCOPY

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