Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology- Nutrition, Digestion, Alimentation

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Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology- Nutrition, Digestion, Alimentation
2011-08-01 14:37:58
nutrition digestion stomach gastric pancreas lumen fermentation water transfer

The basic description of the Digestive System.
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  1. 4 various types of feeding
    • 1. suspension feeding
    • 2. feeding through bird bills
    • 3. lip mobility
    • 4. grazing
  2. the oral cavity stops at the __?__
    faucial tonsils
  3. pass the oral cavity are two cavities
    • 1. oropharynx
    • 2. pharynx
  4. the act of chewing
  5. maceration, swallowing, and insalivation are all at which point of the digestive system...
    the first part of the digestive system.
  6. animal whose saliva contains much amylase
  7. animal whose saliva contains very little amylase
  8. saliva is initiated by the __?__ system
    parasympathetic system
  9. term used for drooling
  10. dogs having a very short oral cavity and pharynx
  11. a highly contagious disease present in the two-digited and hooved animals in which ulcers develop in the mouth.
    foot and mouth disease
  12. The __?__ feeds into the carida of the stomach at the esophageal sphincter or gastroesophageal opening.

  13. animals having 4 chambers as one stomach.
  14. most cranial and largerst chamber of the four-chambered stomach of ruminants
  15. chamber within the 4 chambered stomach that has tons of bacteria and protozoa and is pH specific
    the rumen
  16. When a calf is ill and given antibiotics it kills off a calf's bacteria that it needs, so to make up for this they ...
    take bacteria from another calf and insert it into the calf recieving antibiotics.
  17. part of the 4 chambered stomach that is cranial and ventral to the rumen.
    the reticulum
  18. The second chamber of the 4 chambered stomach that sits caudal to the heart
    the reticulum
  19. after food is swallowed and enters the stomach, which route does it take before making it back into the mouth for resalivation.
    esophagus to rumen, rumen to reticulum, and back to the esophagus, and finally the mouth for resalivation
  20. trype is ...
    a delicacy in some countries, but really its the reticulum of the stomach
  21. food bunched up in a clump and processed into a fluid and released into the intestines at a controlled rate.
  22. "chewing cud" means ...
    resalivation of the bolus that came from the reticulum
  23. the third chamber of the 4 chambered stomach
  24. part of the 4 chambered stomach that we like to think of as the true stomach, where actual digestion takes place.
    the abomasum
  25. the next part of the digestive system that food travels after the stomach
    the pyloric antrum and then the duodenum
  26. act of grinding food as it nears the duodenum.
  27. section of the digestive system between the stomach and duodenum
    pylori antrum
  28. nervous system that secretes hormones and gastric inhibitory peptide to govern gastric motility
    vagus nerve/ nerve X
  29. when an area of tissue or an organ has a number of different pathways for blood to reach it
    collateral circulation
  30. the part of the digestive system that has collateral circulation.
    the jejunum and the ileum
  31. The ileum ends at the __?__
  32. The cecum in a rabbit and a horse is equivalent to a human's __?__
  33. where the intestines end and the colon begins
    the cecum
  34. The reason why a horse or rabbit can NOT vomit.
    the cecum is where they begin digestion
  35. duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix
  36. cells that coat the intestines and are make up of epithelium and villi.
  37. finger-like projections of the enterocytes that the blood inside the villi can absorb the nutrients in the food
  38. membrane of microvilli, that bunches of small villi on enterocytes villi
    • brush border
  39. enterocytes only meet at __?__
    tight junctions
  40. breaking of bonds by inserting water in digestion.
  41. divided into dorsal and ventral sections and where most digestion takes place.
  42. sections of colon that appear like gyri.
    • haustra
  43. three parts of the colon
    • 1. Ascending
    • 2. Transverse
    • 3. Descending
  44. two phases of digestion
    • 1. propulsive phase
    • 2. retropulsive movement phase
  45. where food is pushed along a relatively short distance and segments with circular muscle grinds up the food.
    the propulsive phase
  46. The participation in mixing and withdrawing water from the feces.
    retropulsive movement
  47. in ruminants the colon is shaped ...
    in a spiral and then in a straight path
  48. cells that produce hydrochloric acid (HCl) and mucous
    gastric cells
  49. gastric cells produce
    hydrocholric acid and mucous
  50. interior surface of the intestinal tubing
  51. cells on the luminal surface that produce mucous.
    mucus cells
  52. cells located about half way down and produce hydrochloric acid (HCl).
    parietal cells
  53. Why blood pH becomes alkaline after eating.
    HCl is secreted into cannaliculi, deep invaginations of the plasma membrane that is continuous in the lumen, leaving bicarbonate ions (HCO3) behind in the cells which is then discharged into the bloodstream.
  54. cells that produce pepsinogen, an enzyme crucial to food digestion.
    cheif cells
  55. Pepsinogen is converted to __?__ by the negative pH of the gastric lumen, which is crucial to protein digestion to be extracted by the small intestine.
  56. functions of the pancreas.
    • 1. endocrine function because it produces a hormone.
    • 2. exocrine function because it produces enzymes.
  57. enzymes produced by the pancreas
    • 1. lipase
    • 2. amylase
    • 3. trypsin
  58. enzyme for digesting fats
  59. enzyme for digesting starches
  60. enzyme for digesting proteins
  61. small channels within the lumen
  62. liver cells carry and transport the following to the bile duct and into the gall bladder.
    • 1. bile acids
    • 2. cholesterol
    • 3. phospholipids
  63. bile is discharged when ...
    food enters the duodenum
  64. most effective at digesting fats
  65. after bile breaks down in the ileum it returns to the liver to suppress bile secretion.
    enterohepatico circulation
  66. the closed circulation of the blood from the small intestine to the liver.
    portal circulation
  67. the breaking down of food into nutrients
  68. the transport of particles across the intestinal epithelium
  69. breaking bonds by inserting water in digestion
  70. broken down in the lumen into the short chain polysaccharides or amino acids which are further processed and then absorbed.
    sugars, proteins, and starches
  71. enzymes are made in the enterocytes and move to the luminal surface by __?__
  72. carbohydrates are broken down into __?__ and absorbed into the luminal surface of the intestines.
  73. transport by use of 1 molecule of ATP being hydrolyzed to drive 3 sodium ions out of the cells, allowing 2 potassium ions in.
    active transport
  74. mechanism that keeps sodium from rushing back into the cells
    Na-K-ATPase pump
  75. transport via ion channels that do not require energy but occur as an act of nature, depending on a electrochemical gradient.
    passive transport
  76. passive transport can occur between __?__
    tight junctions
  77. water and electrolytes are crucial for __?__
  78. the direction water will head in the intestinal lumen if the ingesta is hyperosmolar
    • hyper*osmolar= salty concentration
    • water will be drawn into the intestinal lumen
  79. cells that undergo certain circumstances secrete chloride into the lumen that will pull sodium along with it which pulls water.

    * Cl pulls Na, which pulls H2O.
    crypt cells
  80. the direction water runs when crypt cells intervene.
    crypt cell pulls Cl. Cl pulls Na. Na pulls water.
  81. colons main job is to ...
    pull water out of the ingesta
  82. when too much water is pulled out of the ingesta, the animal may become __?__
  83. when too much water is pulled out of the ingesta and the animal can not pass bowels, the animal has become __?__
  84. having to manually remove defecation from an animals colon
  85. villi are most prominent in the __?__ part of the intestines.
  86. an organic molecule called __?__ which are not water soluble
  87. how the enzymes of the pancreas deal with lipids
    they turn lipids inside out so water hydrophilic parts are on the outside and the chylomicron can carry it.
  88. being water soluble
  89. package drop which carries lipids out through the GI tract with the hydrophilic parts on the outside.
  90. breaking down of food by bacteria and other microorganisms, to produce enzymes that can do the actual breaking down.
  91. animals that depend on fermentation for digestion and absorption.
    ruminants, equine, and lagomorphs
  92. where fermentation takes place.
    the cecum
  93. everything in front or proximal to the omasum is the __?__
  94. The __?__ refers to the cecum and the colon.
  95. The hindgut mainly operates digestion by __?__
  96. microorganisms the rumen uses
    fungi and protozoans
  97. the protozoans significance in the digestive system
    to eat excess bacteria
  98. the microorganisms require __?__ to function
    Vitamin B
  99. __?__ will break down lactic acid
    pyruvic acid
  100. the damage of oxygen deprived tissue by giving it too much oxygen abruptly
    reperfusion injury