Exam 4: Key Terms

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Exam 4: Key Terms
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2011-07-30 20:32:56
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Exam 4 Key terms chapters 5 Physical Assessment & 8 Culture
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  1. Define ACUTE.
    Having a short and relatively severe course; a

    disease process characterized by a relatively short

    duration of signs and symptoms that are usually severe

    and begin abruptly.
  2. Define ASSESSMENT
    Evaluation or appraisal of a condition; includes

    observing gathering, verifying, and communicating

    pertinent data, usually information pertaining to the

    patient.
  3. Define AUSCULATION
    • To listen for sounds within the body to evaluate the
    • condition of the heart, lungs, pleura, intestines, or

    other organs or to detect fetal heart sounds.
  4. Define BORBORYGMI
    Loud, sounds that accompany increased motility of the bowel.
  5. Define BRUITS
    Abnormal swishing sound heard over organs, glands, and arteries.
  6. Define CHRONIC
    Developing slowly and persisting for a long period, often for the remainder of an individual's life.
  7. Define CRACKLE(S)
    Short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling

    adventitious breath sounds heard on ausculation

    of the chest, most commonly upon aspiration
    .

    Produced by a passage of air through the bronchi that

    contan secretions of exudate or are constricted by

    spasms or thickening; usually heard during inspiration;

    formerly called rales.
  8. Define DISEASE
    Any disturbance of a structure or function of the

    body
    ; a pathologic condition of the body.
  9. Define DRAINAGE
    Free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or

    cavity
    by some sort of system (such as a urinary catheter

    or T-tube)
  10. Define DULLNESS
    Low-pitched thudlike sound upon percussion of the

    body.
  11. Define EDEMA
    Abnormal accumulation of fluids in interstitial

    spaces of tissue
    ; a combining form meaning swelling.
  12. Define ERYTHEMA
    Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous

    membranes
    resulting from dilation and congestion

    of superficial capillaries.


    Examples: mild sunburn, nervous blushes, injury

    resulting from trauma or infection.
  13. Define ETIOLOGY
    The study of all factors that may be involved in the

    development of a disease
    ; the cause of disease.
  14. Define EXUDATE
    Fluid, cells, or other substances that have been

    slowly exuded or discharged from body cells or

    blood vessels
    through small pores or breaks in cell

    membrane.
  15. Define FLATNESS
    • Soft, high-pitched, flat sound produced by performing
    • percussion over tissue such as muscle tissue.
  16. Define FOCUSED ASSESSMENT
    Concentration of attention on the part of the body

    • where signs and symptoms are localized or most active
    • in order to determine their significance.
  17. Define FUNCTIONAL DISEASE
    May be manifested as an organic disease, but careful

    examination fails to reveal evidence of structural or

    physiologic abnormalities.
  18. Define INFECTION
    • Caused by an invasion of microorganisms such as
    • bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that produce

    tissue damage.
  19. Define INFLAMMATION
    Protective response of body tissues to irritation,

    injury, or invasion by disease-producingorganisms
    .

    The cardinal signs include erythema, edema, heat, and

    loss of function.
  20. Define INSPECTION
    Visual examination of the external surface of the

    body and of its movements and posture
    , including

    • observation of moods and all responses and
    • nonverbal behaviors.

  21. Define LEVEL OF CONCIOUSNESS (LOC)
    • Determine patient's LOC by asking:
    • "Who are you?"

    "Why are you here?"

    "What is the date?"

    "Where are you?"
  22. Define NEOPLASTIC
    Any abnormal growth of new tissue; benign or

    malignant.
  23. Define NURSING HEALTH HISTORY
    • Data collected about the patient's level of wellness,
    • changes in life patterns, sociocultural role, and
    • mental and emotional reactions to illness.
  24. Define NURSING PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT
    Identification by a nurse of the need preferences,

    and abilities of a patient. Assessment provides the

    scientrific basis for a complete nursing care plan.
  25. Define OBJECTIVE DATA
    Pertaining to clincal finding that is observed,

    palpated, or ausculated
    . Labratory findings, as well

    as radiologic and other studies, are included;

    observable & measurable signs.
  26. Define ORGANIC DISEASE
    • Results in a structural change in an organ that
    • interferes with its functioning.
  27. Define PALPATION
    A technique used in physical examination in which

    the examiner feels the texture, size, consistency, and

    location
    of certain parts of the body with the hands.
  28. Define PERCUSSION
    Using fingertips to tap the body's surface to produce

    vibration & sound.
  29. Define PRURITUS
    • Symptoms of itching; Uncomfortable sensation
    • leading to the urge to scratch; Scratching also leads to

    • secondary infection. Some causes of pruritus are
    • allergy, infection, elevated serum urea, jaundice,

    and skin irritation.
  30. Define PURULENT
    Producing or containing pus.
  31. Define REMISSION
    Partial or complete disappearance of clinical and

    subjective characteristics of the disease
    . Sometimes

    spontaneous and a result of therapy.
  32. Define SIGNS
    An objective finding as perceived by the examiner; a

    sign can be seen, heard, measured, or felt by the

    examiner.
  33. Define SUBJECTIVE DATA
    Symptoms; verbal statements provided by the patient.

    That which arises from within or is perceived by the

    individual and related to the examiner.
  34. Define SYMPTOMS
    Subjective; indication of a disease or change in

    condition
    as perceived by patient.
  35. Define THRILL
    • Fine vibration sensation along the artery, which is
    • palpated by the examiner.
  36. Define TURGOR
    • The normal resiliency of the skin caused by the
    • outward pressure of the cells and interstitial fluid;

    may be assessed as increased or decreased skin turgor.
  37. Define TYMPANY
    A high-pitched drumlike sound produced by

    performing percussion over a hollow organ such as the

    stomach.
  38. Define WHEEZE(S)
    • Breath sounds that have a whistling or sighing sound
    • resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a

    respiratory


    passageway
    . May be heard on both inspiration and

    expiration. Wheezes characteristically clear on

    coughing.
  39. Define BIOMEDICAL HEALTH BELIEF SYSTEM
    • A belief that health and illness are controlled by a
    • series of physical and biochemical processes that

    • can be analyzed and manipulated by humans.
    • *Primary health belief in U.S.
  40. Define CULTURAL COMPETENCE
    Awareness by the nurse of his or her own cultural

    • beilief practices and an understanding of other
    • beliefs and cultures. Nurse should be able to

    react to others with openess and accept cultural

    differences.
  41. Define CULTURE
    • A set of learned values, beliefs, customs, and
    • practices that are shared by a group and passed
    • from one generation to another.
  42. Define ETHNICITY
    Group of people who share a common social and

    cultural heritage
    based on traditions, national

    origin, and physical and biologic characteristics
    .

    Often share practices such as language, religion, dress,

    music, and food.
  43. Define ETHNIC STEREOTYPE
    A fixed concept of how all members of an ethnic

    group act or think.
  44. Define ETHNOCENTRISM
    A perception that the practices and beliefs of one's

    own culture are superior to those of other cultures.
  45. Define FOLK HEALTH BELIEF SYSTEM
    • Belief that health and illness are controlled by
    • supernatural forces. May use native healers, plants,

    religious rituals, and prayers.
  46. Define HOLISTIC HEALTH BELIEF SYSTEM
    Belief that forces of nature must be kept in natural

    balance or harmony.
  47. Define MORES
    Accepted traditional customs, moral attitudes, or

    manners
    of a particular social group.
  48. Define RACE
    Group of people who share biologic and physical

    characteristics.
  49. Define SOCIETY
    • A nation, community, or broad group of people who
    • establish particular aims, beliefs, or standards of

    living and conduct.
  50. Define STEREOTYPE
    A generalization about a form of behavior, an

    individual, or a group.
  51. Define SUBCULTURE
    A group that shares any characteristics with the

    primary culture
    but has chracteristic patterns of

    behavior and ideals that distinguish it from the rest of a

    cultural group.
  52. Define TRANSCULTURAL NURSING
    • An integration of the nurse's understanding of
    • culture into all aspects of nursing care.

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