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Which anatomical area of our respiratory system does gas exchange take place?
What is the very function(s) of our paranasal sinus'?
- Warming the air
- Humidifying or moisten the inhaled air
Bronchial Smooth Muscle spasms occur when inhaling external allergens. What is this condition called?
Hyperactive Airway Disease
What does the RCC (respiratory control center) monitor?
C02 levels in the blood
What is the cartilage that is responsible for preventing aspiration (food and water go into the windpipe)?
The pleura is the membrane that is on the outside of the Lung. Is the structure part of the respiratory system?
Air entering pleural space is called?
Water entering the pleural space is called?
Pleural Effusion (edema)
Which two hormones work on the distal tubules of nephrons?
- Aldosterone - reabsorbs water so you do not lose too much body fluid, especially in cases of dehydration
- ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone)
Name the 4 ways we lose body fluid, Physiologically?
- Feces / Defecation
What is the name of the process in which water moves in the body?
Osmosis - Low solute to High solute across a membrane
Which hormone is opposite in action and function to insulin?
What is the factor that keeps fluid inside the blood vessel?
Plasma Osmotic Pressure
A 23 year old female with golf ball sized anterior neck mass. What condition does this person have?
A 64 year old with general weakness, weight gain, decreased appetite and facial edema. What condition does this person have?
A 44 year old patient with COPD on steroids. What condition does this person have?
A 45 year old with very rough facial and hand features, skin. What condition does this person have?
What are the 3 P's of Type 1 Diabetes?
- Polyuria - excessive urination
- Polydipsia - excessive thirst
- Polyphagia - excessive appetite
What are the most common causes of edema?
- Cancer mass (unilateral)
- Blood clot or DVT
- Congestive heart failure (bilateral)
- Protein calorie malnutrition (anywhere)
What do you normally find in urine?
What is NOT normally found in urine?
- Glucose (Diabetes)
- Ketones (Poorly Controlled Diabetes)
- Proteins (Albumin)
- Bilirubin (Gallstones)
- White Blood Cells (Urinary Tract Infection)
A 45 year old complaining of fatigue, facial swelling, weight gain, poor appetite. Noted with lump in the neck area.
a. Grave's Disease
b. Primary Hypothyroidism
d. Pituitary Adenoma
- Grave's Disease (key words: antibody attack thyroid, tender mass)
- Primary Hypothyroidism (key words: no anterior neck mass)
- Goiter (key words: not enough iodine leads to anterior neck mass)
- Pituitary Adenoma (key words: over production of TSH leads Hyperthyroidism, excessive weight loss despite over eating, headache, bilateral breast enlargement)
What hormone is elevated after ovulation?
What hormone is elevated during ovulation (mid-cycle)?
Leutinizing Hormine (LH)
What hormone is involved in endometiral growth?
What hormone is involved in ovarian follicle development?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
What is the name of the hormone that facilitates glucose from the portal vein into the liver cell?
What is the name of the bone cell that demineralizes bone?
A 23 year old female with bilateral breast enlargement with nipple discharge and occasional headache. What condition does this patient have?
What are the 4 rules of female reproductive system?
Regular cycle length?
Regular menses length?
First day of cycle?
- Mid-cycle: Day 14
- Regular cycle length: 28 days
- Regular menses length: 3-5 days
- First day of cycle: First day of menses or period
Which pituitary hormone is involved with labor or pregnancy?
What is the name of the hormone to test for positive pregnancy?
hCG (human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
What components make up the Sensory pathway of Peripheral Nervous System?
- 5 sense organs
- 12 pairs of cranial nerves
What components make up the Motor pathway of Peripheral Nervous System?
31 pairs of Spinal Nerves
What components make up the Peripheral Nervous System?
- Somatosensosry System - consists of 5 sense organs, 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
- Autonomic Nervous System - consists of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
What components make up the Central Nervous System?
What space is violated / entered by the needle during a Lumbar Puncture?
Sub Arachnoid Space
In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) what anatomical structure are the antibodies attacking?
Is damage to nerve cells 100% reversible?
Which Cranial Nerves are responsible for Eye movement?
CN 3, 4, 6 (Oculamotor)
The Brachial Plexus (C5 - T1 nerve roots) forms 3 common problems: Wrist Drop, Claw Hand, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Please identify which nerve is affected for each condition.
- Wrist Drop - Radial Nerve
- Claw Hand - Ulnar Nerve
- Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Median Nerve
In the Cervical Plexus (C1 - C4 nerve roots), there is a condition called "C3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphargm alive". Which nerve is impaired?
If we have unilateral facial / cheek / jaw pain, what is condition called?
- Trigeminal Neuralgia (CN 5 problem)
- Bell's Palsy (CN 7 problem)
- CVA (wind stroke) (CN 7 problem)
Which Cranial Nerves are responsible for parasympathetic activity in the body?
CN 10 - Vagus
Which cranial nerve if damaged causes lateral tongue deviation?
CN 12 - Hypoglossal
Which nerve in involved in neck movement?
CN 11 - Spinal Accessory Nerve
Which nerve in involved in taste sensation?
CN 9 - Glossophryngeal
Which plexus in involved with "Foot Drop"?
Which nerve roots makeup the Brachial Plexus?
Which structure in involved in Accommodation of Vision?
What 3 physiological components are found in the Media of the Ear?
- 3 Ossicles - converts sound to electrical impulses (Incus (Anvil), Stapes (Stirrup), Malleus (Hammer)
- Eustachian Tube (Equalizes Airway Pressure)
- Ear Drum (Tympanic Membrane, easy for age: 5 months to 5 years to get infection (Otitis Media))
What is this disease called when both tinnitus and vertigo occur at the same time?
Meniere's Disease (both hearing and balance deficit)
What is the name of the condition associated with Loss of Central Vision?
What is the name of the condition associated with Increased Intraocular Pressure?
What is the name of the condition associated with weakness of eye muscles?
What is the name of the condition associated with Diabetic small vessel disease?
What is the difference between active and passive immunity?
- Active - injection / vaccine
- Passive - breast feeding
What is the name of the cell type that is responsible for anitbody production?
What cell is affected by HIV?
T4 / Thelper / CD4