The muscular system

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LoriThomas
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95697
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The muscular system
Updated:
2011-08-02 00:05:13
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Chapter7
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The muscular system chapter 7
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  1. Striated
    skeletal muscle
  2. Cells branch frequently
    cardiac muscle
  3. moves food to stomach
    smooth muscle
  4. nonstriated
    smooth muscle
  5. voluntary
    skeletal
  6. keeps blood circulating through the vessels
    cardiac muscle
  7. involuntary
    smooth muscle
  8. attaches to bone
    skeletal muscle
  9. found in hollow internal organs
    smooth muscle
  10. maintains normal blood pressure
    smooth muscle
  11. attachment to more stationary bone
    origin
  12. attachment to the more movable bone
    Insertion
  13. The muscle unit, excluding the ends
    Body
  14. Attaches muscle to bone
    Tendons
  15. Fluid-filled sacs
    Bursae
  16. Specialized contractile cells of muscle tissue
    Muscle fibers
  17. protein that forms thin myofilaments
    actin
  18. basic functional unit of skeletal muscle
    sarcomere
  19. protein that forms thick myofilaments
    myosin
  20. microscopic threadlike structures found in skeletal muscle fibers
    myofilament
  21. Muscles move bones by ______ on them
    pulling
  22. As a rule, only the ______ bone moves.
    insertion
  23. The ______ bone moves toward the ____bone
    insertion, origin
  24. Of all the muscles contracting simultaneously, the one mainly responsible for producing a particular movement is called the _____ _____ for that movement.
    Prime mover
  25. As a prime movers contract, muscles called _______ relax.
    antagonists
  26. The biceps brachii is the prime mover during bending, and the brachialis is its helper or_______.
    synergist
  27. We are able to maintain our body position because of a specialized type of skeletal muscle contraction called_____ _____.
    tonic contraction
  28. _____ ____ maintains body posture by counteracting the pull of gravity.
    muscle tone
  29. A decrease in temperature, a condition known as ______ , will drastically affect cellular activity and normal body function.
    hypothermia
  30. Energy required to produce a muscle contraction is obtained from _____.
    ATP
  31. The point of contact between the nerve ending and the muscle fiber is called a ______ ______.
    neuromuscular junction
  32. A motor neuron together with the cells it intervates is called a_____ _____
    Motor Unit
  33. If muscle cells are stimulated repeatedly without adequate periods of rest, the strength of the muscle contraction will _____, resulting in fatigue.
    decrease
  34. The depletion of oxygen in muscle cells during vigorous and prolonged exercise is known as ____ ___.
    oxygen debt
  35. An adequate stimulus will contract a muscle cell completely because of the "___ __ ___" theory.
    "all or nothing"
  36. When oxygen supplies run low, muscle cells produce ____ ____ and other waste products during contraction.
    lactic acid
  37. In a laboratory setting, a single _____ _____ can be isolated and subjected to stimuli of varying intensities so that it can be studied.
    muscle fiber
  38. The minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract is called the _______ _______.
    threshold stimulus
  39. ______ ________ bring about movements by pulling on bones across movable joints.
    skeletal muscles
  40. A nervous system disorder that shuts off impulses to certain skeletal muscles may result in ______.
    paralysis
  41. When a muscle does not shorten and no movements results, the contraction is:
    Isometric
  42. Walking is an example of which type of contraction?
    Isotonic
  43. Pushing against a wall is an example of which type of contraction?
    Isometric
  44. Endurance training is also known as:
    Aerobic training
  45. Benefits of regular exercise include:
    • Improved lung function
    • more efficient heart
    • less fatigue
  46. Contractions that "melt" together to produce a sustained contraction are called:
    tetanus contractions
  47. In most cases, isotonic contraction of muscle produces movements at a(an):
    joint
  48. Twitch contractions can easily be seen in:
    Isolated muscles prepared for research
  49. prolonged inactivity causes muscles to shrink in mass, producing a condition called:
    disuse atrophy
  50. Muscle hypertrophy can be best enhanced by a program of:
    muscle training
  51. Deltoid
    abductor
  52. Tibialis anterior
    Dorsiflexor or plantar flexor
  53. Gastrocnemius
    Dorsiflexor or plantar flexor
  54. Biceps Brachii
    Flexor
  55. Gluteus medius
    abductor
  56. Soleus
    extensor
  57. Iliopsoas
    flexor
  58. Pectoralis major
    flexor
  59. gluteus maximus
    extensor
  60. triceps brachii
    extensor
  61. sternocleidomastoid
    flexor
  62. trapezius
    extensor
  63. gracilis
    adductor
  64. A movement that makes the angle between two bones smaller is:
    flexion
  65. Moving a part toward the midline is:
    adduction
  66. Moving a part away from the midline is:
    abduction
  67. When you move your head from side to side as in shaking your head "no" you are______a muscle group.
    rotating
  68. ______ occurs when you turn the palm of your hand from an anterior to posterior position.
    pronation
  69. Dorsiflexion refers to:
    foot movements
  70. Endurance training is also called:
    Aerobic training
  71. Increase in muscle size is called:
    Hypertrophy
  72. Muscle cells are stimulated by a nerve fiber called a:
    motor neuron
  73. muscles that help other muscles produce movements are called:
    prime movers
  74. The connecting bridges between myofilaments form properly only if______ is present.
    calcium
  75. Physiological muscle fatigue is caused by:
    • Oxygen debt
    • lack of ATP
    • lactic acid build up in the muscles
  76. The muscle's attachment to the more stationary bone is called its:
    origin
  77. Skeletal muscle:
    Is voluntary
  78. what are hamstring muscle?
    • semimembranosus
    • semitendinosus
    • biceps femoris
  79. The "____ ___ ____" principle states that when a muscle fiber is subjected to a threshold stimulus, it contracts completely.
    All or nothing
  80. muscle tone maintains
    posture
  81. Thick myofilaments are formed from a protein called
    myosin
  82. The triceps brachii is on the ______ surface of the upper arm.
    posterior
  83. Tendons anchor muscles firmly to _____.
    bones.
  84. Energy required to produce a muscle contraction is obtained from ____.
    ATP
  85. ______ is a movement around a longitudinal axis.
    rotation
  86. ______ movements are the opposite of abduction
    flexion
  87. The gastrocnemius is responsible for plantar fexion of the foot and is sometimes referred to as the"____ _____ _____".
    Toe dancers muscle
  88. The zygomaticus is sometimes called the _____ muscle.
    smiling

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