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2010-03-08 00:54:22

Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. appearance
    refers to the clarity of the urine
  2. Anuria
    without urine; completes stoppage of urinary flow
  3. bilirubin
    product in the breakdown of hemoglobin; main pigment in bile
  4. control
    a sample with a known value used to determine the accuracy of a method
  5. Concurrent machanism
    selective reabsorption process that serves to maintain the osmotic gradient
  6. distal
    farthest from a point
  7. diuresis
    passage of abnormally large amount of urine
  8. Dysuria
    painful urination
  9. edema
  10. -emia
    relating to blood
  11. filtration
    forcing fluids and disssolved substances through a membrane by pressure
  12. glycolysis
    splitting of glucose into smaller fragments
  13. Glycosuria(glucosuria)
    glucose in the urine
  14. Glucose oxidase
    an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and H2O2
  15. Homeostasis
    the tendency in biologic systems to maintain relatively constant condidtions in the internal environment e.g. injuries
  16. hypersthenuria
    a condition where urine has a specific gravity greater than the 1.010 SG of plasma filtrate
  17. Hyposthenuria
    less than 1.010 SG
  18. Hydrometer
    a weighted glass rod that measures density of a solutin by depth at which glass rods floats in the liquid
  19. hemoglobinuria
    hemoglobin in urine
  20. hematuria
    blood in urine; intact rbc
  21. Isosthenuria
    a condition where urine has a specific gravity equal to the 1.010 SG gravity of the plasma filtrate
  22. Ketone bodies
    degradation products of fatty acids
  23. Ketonuria
    ketones in the urine
  24. Leukocytes Esterase
    an enzyme found in leukocytes
  25. malanogen
    a colorless chromogen that will darken if exposed to light
  26. Multistix
    a plastic strip with varying numbers of test pads which are impregnated with different reagents to assay (test) a specific analyte
  27. Myoglobin
    a heme protein found in a striated muscle, which after crushing injury is released into circulation and can be easily filtered by the glomerulus
  28. Nephritis
    inflammation of the kidney
  29. Nocturia
    excessive urination during the night
  30. Oliguria
    decrease of urinary output less than 500mL with 2hrs
  31. Orthostatic proteinuria
    a condition where protein will be present in the urine only after patient has been standing
  32. Osmotic gradient
    a difference in salt concentration
  33. Peristalsis
    a progressive wave of contraction and relaxation of a tubular muscular system in which contents are forced through a system
  34. Peroxidase
    a second enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with a potassium iodide chromogen to oxidize the chromogen to colors ranging from green to brown
  35. pH
    the measurement of hydrogen ion concentration
  36. Phenylketonuria
    a genetic condition that is characterized by the accumalation of plasma phenylalanine
  37. polydipsia
    excessive thrist
  38. polyuria
    increase in urine flow
  39. Proteinuria
    protein in urine
  40. proximal
    nearest to point or close
  41. pyuria
    pus in urine
  42. reabsorption
    the process of bringing fluids and dissolved substances through a membrane back into the body
  43. refractometer
    an instrument used for indirectly determing specific gravity by refractive index
  44. renal
  45. renal calculi
    kidney stones
  46. secretion
    the process of bringing fluids and dissolved substances through a membrane into the filtrate in the kidneys
  47. specific gravity SG
    the ration of weight in a volumes of fluid compared to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at a constant temperature
  48. Tamm-Horsfall(uromodulin)
    muco-protein secreted by the renal tubules (urine cast)
  49. Threshold substances
    a substance whch is almost completely reabsorbed by the renal tubules when their concentration in plasma is within normal limits
  50. Turbidity
    a cloudiness; a disturbance of solids (sediment) in a solution
  51. urobilinogen
    one of the several reduction products seen during the breakdown of bilirubin
  52. urea
    a metabolic waste product produced in the liver from the breakdown of protein and amino acids