shosh: heme/onc

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shosh: heme/onc
2011-08-01 11:27:32

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  1. Reed-Sternberg cells
    Hodgkin's lymphoma
  2. Virus associated with Hodgkin's
  3. 8:14 translocation
    • Burkitt's lymphoma
    • Translocation of c-myc oncogene
  4. Sheets of lymphocytes interspersed with macrophages
    "Starry sky," seen in Burkitt's lymphoma
  5. Most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in adults
    Diffuse large-B cell lymphoma
  6. 11:14 translocation
    • Mantle cell lymphoma
    • CD5 marker
    • Seen in older males
  7. 14:18 translocation
    • Follicular lymphoma
    • Overexpression of bcl-2 anti-apoptotic gene
    • Seen in adults
    • Indolent course
  8. HTLV-1
    • Causes adult T cell lymphoma
    • Aggressive cutaneous lesions
    • Common in Japan, West Africa, and the Caribbean
  9. Lymphoblastic lymphoma
    • Aggressive T cell lymphoma seen in children
    • Enlarged thymus will give rise to a mediastinal mass
  10. Monoclonal Ig spike on electrophoresis
    Multiple myeloma
  11. Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
    Like multiple myeloma, with an M spike on electrophoresis but no lytic bone lesions
  12. TdT marker
    • Marker of pre-B and pre-T cells
    • Used to diagnose ALL
  13. Cancer cells that are TRAP positive
    Hairy cell leukemia
  14. 15:17 translocation
    • PML variant of AML
    • Associated with DIC
    • Treat with vitamin A
  15. Imatinib
    • Monoclonal antibody against bcr-abl
    • Use to treat CML
  16. Lots of immature WBCs with high leukocyte alk phos levels
    Leukemoid reaction (alk phos is elevated in leukemia)
  17. Histiocytosis X
    • Proliferative disorder of dendritic Langerhans cells in the skin
    • Cells express S-100 and CD1
    • Birbeck granules that have a tennis racket shape are seen on EM
  18. JAK-2 mutation
    • Polycythemia vera
    • Essential thrombocytosis
    • Myelofibrosis
  19. Methotrexate
    • Folate analog, inhibits DHF reductase
    • Inhibits dTMP synthesis by inhibiting conversion of DHF to THF
    • Major side effect is BMS--can be reversed with leucovorin
  20. 5-FU
    • Inhibits thymidylate synthase, which converts dUMP to dTMP
    • Synergistic with methotrexate
    • Side effects are BMS (treat with thymidine) and photosensitivity
  21. 6-MP
    • Purine analog
    • Activated by HGPRTase and inactivated by xanthine oxidase
    • Toxicity is increased with allopurinol
  22. Cladribine
    • An adenosine analog
    • Has a long half life because is resistant to degradation by adenosine deaminase
  23. Dactinomycin
    • Intercalating agent
    • Main side effect is BMS
  24. Bleomycin
    • G2 phase specific
    • Causes breaks in the DNA strands by inducing free radical formation
    • Major side effect is pulmonary fibrosis
  25. Cyclophosphamide
    • Intercalating agent
    • Requires bioactivation by the liver
    • Causes myelosuppression and hemorrhagic cystitis, which can be prevented with mesna
  26. Nitrosureas (carmustine, lomustine, semustine, streptozocin)
    • Alkylating agents
    • Require bioactivation
    • Can cross BBB, so are drugs of choice in brain cancer
    • Side effects are dizziness and ataxia
  27. Vincristine
    • Blocks microtubule polymerization, inhibits mitosis
    • Major side effect is peripheral neuropathy. Also causes paralytic ileus
  28. Major side effect of vinblastine
  29. Amifostine
    Use to prevent nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin
  30. Side effects of cisplatin
    • Nephrotoxicity
    • Acoustic nerve damage
  31. Hydroxyurea
    Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, blocks DNA synthesis
  32. Effect of prednisone on cancerous cells
    Triggers apoptosis
  33. Trastuzumab
    • Monoclonal antibody against HER2 receptor
    • Cardiotoxic