shosh: heme/onc

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shosh114
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95762
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shosh: heme/onc
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2011-08-01 11:27:32
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  1. Reed-Sternberg cells
    Hodgkin's lymphoma
  2. Virus associated with Hodgkin's
    EBV
  3. 8:14 translocation
    • Burkitt's lymphoma
    • Translocation of c-myc oncogene
  4. Sheets of lymphocytes interspersed with macrophages
    "Starry sky," seen in Burkitt's lymphoma
  5. Most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in adults
    Diffuse large-B cell lymphoma
  6. 11:14 translocation
    • Mantle cell lymphoma
    • CD5 marker
    • Seen in older males
  7. 14:18 translocation
    • Follicular lymphoma
    • Overexpression of bcl-2 anti-apoptotic gene
    • Seen in adults
    • Indolent course
  8. HTLV-1
    • Causes adult T cell lymphoma
    • Aggressive cutaneous lesions
    • Common in Japan, West Africa, and the Caribbean
  9. Lymphoblastic lymphoma
    • Aggressive T cell lymphoma seen in children
    • Enlarged thymus will give rise to a mediastinal mass
  10. Monoclonal Ig spike on electrophoresis
    Multiple myeloma
  11. Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
    Like multiple myeloma, with an M spike on electrophoresis but no lytic bone lesions
  12. TdT marker
    • Marker of pre-B and pre-T cells
    • Used to diagnose ALL
  13. Cancer cells that are TRAP positive
    Hairy cell leukemia
  14. 15:17 translocation
    • PML variant of AML
    • Associated with DIC
    • Treat with vitamin A
  15. Imatinib
    • Monoclonal antibody against bcr-abl
    • Use to treat CML
  16. Lots of immature WBCs with high leukocyte alk phos levels
    Leukemoid reaction (alk phos is elevated in leukemia)
  17. Histiocytosis X
    • Proliferative disorder of dendritic Langerhans cells in the skin
    • Cells express S-100 and CD1
    • Birbeck granules that have a tennis racket shape are seen on EM
  18. JAK-2 mutation
    • Polycythemia vera
    • Essential thrombocytosis
    • Myelofibrosis
  19. Methotrexate
    • Folate analog, inhibits DHF reductase
    • Inhibits dTMP synthesis by inhibiting conversion of DHF to THF
    • Major side effect is BMS--can be reversed with leucovorin
  20. 5-FU
    • Inhibits thymidylate synthase, which converts dUMP to dTMP
    • Synergistic with methotrexate
    • Side effects are BMS (treat with thymidine) and photosensitivity
  21. 6-MP
    • Purine analog
    • Activated by HGPRTase and inactivated by xanthine oxidase
    • Toxicity is increased with allopurinol
  22. Cladribine
    • An adenosine analog
    • Has a long half life because is resistant to degradation by adenosine deaminase
  23. Dactinomycin
    • Intercalating agent
    • Main side effect is BMS
  24. Bleomycin
    • G2 phase specific
    • Causes breaks in the DNA strands by inducing free radical formation
    • Major side effect is pulmonary fibrosis
  25. Cyclophosphamide
    • Intercalating agent
    • Requires bioactivation by the liver
    • Causes myelosuppression and hemorrhagic cystitis, which can be prevented with mesna
  26. Nitrosureas (carmustine, lomustine, semustine, streptozocin)
    • Alkylating agents
    • Require bioactivation
    • Can cross BBB, so are drugs of choice in brain cancer
    • Side effects are dizziness and ataxia
  27. Vincristine
    • Blocks microtubule polymerization, inhibits mitosis
    • Major side effect is peripheral neuropathy. Also causes paralytic ileus
  28. Major side effect of vinblastine
    BMS
  29. Amifostine
    Use to prevent nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin
  30. Side effects of cisplatin
    • Nephrotoxicity
    • Acoustic nerve damage
  31. Hydroxyurea
    Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, blocks DNA synthesis
  32. Effect of prednisone on cancerous cells
    Triggers apoptosis
  33. Trastuzumab
    • Monoclonal antibody against HER2 receptor
    • Cardiotoxic

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