Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology - Respiratory System

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Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology - Respiratory System
2011-08-28 16:30:16
respiration lungs oxygen ventilation inhalation

The description of the basics of the respiratory system
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  1. movement of air/gas in and out of the lungs
  2. volume of air being taken in per breath
    tidal volume
  3. volume of air take in per minute
    minute ventilation
  4. nothing happens in this part of the lungs other then transport of air which isnt always used
    anatomical dead space
  5. amount of dead space varies by:
    • 1. species
    • 2. activity level
  6. horses have __?__ of dead space and __?__ of tidal volume
  7. dogs have __?__ of dead space and __?__ of tidal volume
    1/3, 2/3
  8. active animals increases or decreases the amount of dead space.
  9. __?__ is the gas in the conducting areas of the respiratory system, such as the mouth and trachea, where air does not come into contact with the alveoli of the lungs.
    Anatomical dead space
  10. amount of ventilation cant not keep up with blood flow
    ventilation/ perfusion mismatch
  11. abbreviation for ventilation/ perfusion mismatch
    V/Q mismatch
  12. to perfuse means ...
    to have a lot of
  13. bringing air into the lungs
  14. ridding air out of the lungs
  15. a) It requires energy to exhale but not inhale?
    b) It requires energy to inhale but not exhale?
    c) It requires energy to both inhale and exhale?
    b) it requires energy to inhale but exhaling is passive.

    *only in horses or in sick animals is energy required to do both.
  16. tidal volume x BPM (breaths per minute)
    minute ventilation
  17. conducting airways from the nares to the bronchioles where no actual gas exchage takes place between the body and the environment. Air is just transported in and out.
    anatomical dead space
  18. areas in the alveoli that are poorly perfused so that no actual gas exchange is occuring
    alveolar dead space
  19. while blood is in the process of exchanging gas, things reach an equilibrium, at which point there is no further exchange to be made and that alveolus is not "working" at the moment.
    alveolar dead space
  20. how an animal can react under heat stress
    the animal may pant increasing amount of air in the dead space which reduces gas exhange to prevent heat build up.
  21. how animal can react to cold temperature
    alveolar ventilation is increased and dead space ventilation is increased

    tidal volume is increased and BPM is slowed
  22. endotracheal tubes and face masks that are too large can lead to __?__
  23. when rate of blood flow and rate of ventilation dont synchronize normally leading to the deficient transfer of O2.
    V/Q mismatch
  24. domed muculotendinous sheet separating abdomen and thoraz.
  25. the diaphragms nerve
  26. flattening of the diaphragm out by pulling it caudally increasing the size of the thoracic cavity.
  27. which is passive, inhalation or exhalation?
  28. muscles essential to inhalation
    external intercostals
  29. having a hole in the chest cavity that messes with the vacuum effect needed to inhale and exhale, causing it to collaspe
  30. muscles essential for exhalation
    abdominals and internal intercostals
  31. amount of air remaining in the lung at the end of exhalation that allows for the slight negative pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure
    FRC or Function Residual Capacity
  32. collasped lung due to the penetration of the thorax.
  33. lung tissue stiffness is most volunerable to alectasis when...
    the animals are young and their thorax is too undeveloped
  34. membrane covering the lung
    pleura or visceral pleura
  35. ribs and walls or the thoracic cavity
    parietal pleura
  36. thin layer of fluid between the visceral pleura ad the parietal pleura that helps lubricate the lung.
    pleural fluid
  37. expansion of due to too much fluid
  38. listening to respiration or air flow as the bronchioles narrow
  39. crackling and wheezing sounds can indicate ...
    asthma or pneumonia
  40. when listening to the animals respiration system you listen to the __?__ and __?__ regions.
    dorsal and ventral regions
  41. receptors within the tissue, muscle, and the airways
    lungs stretch receptors
  42. __?__ governs the rhythmicity of breathing, with the aid of afferent info from the vagus and the pons.
    medulla oblongata
  43. the __?__ nerve is connected to the bronchioles and such.
    vagus nerve
  44. receptors within the airways including the trachea and main bronchi.
    irritant receptors
  45. receptors that sense low O2 tension or high CO2 tension and send a signal to the brain to stimulate neural firing to change respiration.
  46. the __?__ is situated by the carotid artery where it branches to the right and the left.
    carotid body
  47. the __?__ is situated by the aortic arch.
    aortic body
  48. central chemoreceptor in the medullla which evaluates the interstitual fluid for pH
    pH-sensitive tissue
  49. effect acidic pH has on ventilation
    it increases ventilation
  50. effect alkalinic pH has on ventilation
    it decreases it
  51. formed once the anaerobic threshold is reached in cells
    lactic acid
  52. __?__ decreases blood pH which increases O2 partial pressure and decreases CO2 pressure.
    lactic acid
  53. animal that breaths in such a way that it coordinates with their activity
  54. high pressure of O2 will help it be absorbed by the body if its O2 is higher then that of the chamber it enters.
    partial pressure
  55. a respiratory organ that captures dissolved O2 from water.
  56. two ways water can be assisted through the gills
    assisted by muscle or must have water run through their gills.
  57. animals who must swim with their mouths open to have water run through thier gills
    open-mouthed breathers
  58. gill types:
    • 1. Evaginated gills
    • 2. "Internal" gills
  59. gills out of the fishs body and in direct contact with the environment.
    evaginated gills
  60. gills on the outside that appear internal
    "internal" gills
  61. animals mix air and water for breathing
  62. they stage where amphibians must breath via gills
    larval stage
  63. the stage where gills disappear and lungs take over in amphibians
  64. allows air in when lowered and then the mouth and nares are sealed to increase air pressure and forces air into the lungs.
    buccal cavity
  65. opening between the vocal cords is locked and the animal can not breathe while lungs gill.
  66. Some frogs and other amphibians may breath through their skin. Very important in hibernating amphibians.
    Gas-Permeable Skin
  67. like a sac with one chamber with a honey comb pattern to increase surface area and allow for diffusion
    reptilian lungs
  68. The __?__ runs all the way through the lung. branching bronchi become smaller and smaller in diameter becoming Air capillaries which are microscopic. they are pairs with blood capillaries where gas exchange occurs.
    main bronchus
  69. __?__ expand and contract during ventilation but can not exchange gas.
    Air sacs