European History

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European History
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2010-03-08 01:32:53
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complete European history test preparation
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  1. Nicholas II
    Last Tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rusputin
  2. Alexandra
    Last Tsarist of Russia, had a son who was a hemophiliac, and was put under the influence of Rasputin, where he exploited her. Ended up causing the collapse of the Tsars
  3. Grigori Rasputin
    a Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, twisted and cheated and exploited Alexandra.
  4. Alexander Kerensky
    An agrarian socialist who became prime minister. He refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important.
  5. Anton Denikin
    Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army and foremost general for the White Russians in the Russian civil war.
  6. Vladimir llynich Ulyanov (Lenin)
    opponent of Tsarist Russia, began to immerse himself in Marxian socialist ideas as a law student. He then went on to form the Bolsheviks, and tried to start a revolution in July 1917. It failed, he went into hiding, but regrouped in Petrograd, where he and his partner Trotsky gained power. He then moved on government buildings, and was declared the head of the new Bolshevik government.
  7. Leon Trotsky
    Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution
  8. Nikolai Bukarin
    Bolshevik revolutionary and political and intellectual thinker for Stalin. Supported the NEP
  9. Joseph Dzhugashvili
    Dictator of Russia, named man of steel. Was of lowly backgrounds but rose to power. Only in it for himself. Created 5 year plans.
  10. Sergei Kirov
    A Political opponent of Stalin's who was executed for being more popular that Stalin
  11. Benito Mussolini
    Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.
  12. Victor Emmanuel III
    King of Italy who gave Mussolini legitimacy as dictator
  13. Heinrich Brüning
    The German chancellor during the Weimar Republic who convinced the president to accept rule by decree
  14. Adolf Hitler
    Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust
  15. Karl Lueger
    Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized
  16. Hermann Göring
    A Nazi politician and president of the Reichstag
  17. Rudolf Hess
    Deputy to Hitler in the Nazi party person who dictated Mein Kampf
  18. Joseph Goebbels
    Chief minister of the Nazi propaganda, and organizer of Kristallnacht
  19. Paul von Hindenburg
    President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933
  20. Franz von Papen
    Chancellor of Germany who succeeded Bruning
  21. Heinrich Himmler
    Inhumane and cruel leader of the SS in Germany, appointed by Hitler
  22. Neville Chamberlain
    Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement
  23. Francisco Franco
    Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
  24. Antonio de Oliveira Salzar
    served as the Prime Minister and dictator of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He founded and led the Estado Novo ("New State"), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974.
  25. Josef Pilsudaski
    was the authoritarian ruler of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he was a major influence in Poland's politics, and an important figure on the broader European political scene. He is considered largely responsible for Poland regaining independence in 1918, after a hundred and twenty-three years of partitions
  26. Béla Kun
    was a Hungarian Communist politician who ruled Hungary as leader of the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919
  27. Elie Halévy
    was a French philosopher and historian who wrote Era of Tyrannies, which talked about the different kinds of government and how they all stemmed out of nature of modern war.
  28. Henri-Philippe Pétain
    French leader of the Vichy republic of France, which was essentially Nazi France. He is seen as a traitor to his people by some Frenchman.
  29. Reasons for Russian weakness
    These were the reasons of bad leadership, and lack of organized or effective army
  30. Duma
    Russia's lower house of politics
  31. Relationship between Alexandra & Rasputin / Rasputin's assassination
    He used her to gain politically and to gain money for sex and drugs. He was then "assassinated" aka tried to be killed something like 8 times, then thrown in a river.
  32. He used her to gain politically and to gain money for sex and drugs. He was then "assassinated" aka tried to be killed something like 8 times, then thrown in a river.
    He used her to gain politically and to gain money for sex and drugs. He was then "assassinated" aka tried to be killed something like 8 times, then thrown in a river.
  33. Petrograd Soviet
    the political party with whom the Provisional Government had to share power with
  34. Army Order Number 1
    Given by the Provisional Government, this stripped the army officers of power, and placed it in hand of elected committees. This collapsed army discipline
  35. Bolsheviks/Mensheviks
    The two rival communists groups. One weree true revolutionary Marxists, and the other were revisionist socialists.
  36. Bolshevik (October) Revolution
    Replaces the Provisional Government with Lenin's forces
  37. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Document that announced the withdrawal of Russia from WWI
  38. "White" forces
    The opposition to the Bolsheviks and the Red army after the October rebellion and the Russian Revolution
  39. Reasons for Bolshevik victory
    Three reasons anarchy was about and any person could create power; the Bolsheviks had better leaders; the Bolsheviks appealed to many workers
  40. War Communism
    The political idea that applied the total war concept on a civil conflict
  41. Cheka
    The old Tsarist secret police
  42. Totalitarianism
    is a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. These regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that controls the state, personality cults, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism. These states always have to be at war with something
  43. Conservative Authoritarianism
    Traditional form of antidemocratic government
  44. Radical Dictatorships
    leaders who violently rejected parliamentary restraint and liberal values, as well as exercised unprecedented control over masses and sought to mobilize them for war.
  45. Kronstadt Rebels
    Unsuccessful uprising of sailors, soldiers, and civilians against Russian government (against Bolsheviks)
  46. New Economic Policy
    Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry
  47. Stalin's rise
    He was totally focused on himself, double and tripled crossed, rose by gaining support of party
  48. Five Year plans – objectives, methods & success
    Objectives were to increase industrial output by 250% and agriculture output by 150% and have 1/5 of Russian peasants on collective farms. The methods were forced farming and scare tactics like gulags. The success was that of industry, which produced 4 times as much as before
  49. Soviet quality of life
    Life was hard, there was no improvement in the average standard of living, but unemployment was unknown and communism had real appeal
  50. Collectivization
    Putting smaller farms together into one large farm so as to increase productivity
  51. Kulaks
    The well off peasants who were starved or shipped to the gulags
  52. Ukrainian Famine
    The forced famine of Ukraine by Stalin over not producing enough grain
  53. Stalinization of culture
    The acceptance of Stalin though propaganda
  54. Great Purges
    Stalin's mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against
  55. "Socialism in one country"
    Idea that the Soviet Union had the ability to build socialism on its own
  56. Women in totalitarian states
    They were given more rights and had complete equality of rights
  57. Comintern
    was an international Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."
  58. Fascism
    is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state with a government led by a dictator who seeks national unity and development by requiring individuals to subordinate self-interest to the collective interest of the nation or race.
  59. Mussolini's Rise – role of Black Shirts
    These were Mussolini's bullies who pushed socialist out of Northern Italy
  60. Lateran Agreement
    In this, Mussolini recognized the Vatican as an independent state, and gave it heavy financial support
  61. Hitler's Rise
    Gained power through feeding off others, and promoting racist nationalist ideals. Gained control of the German Worker's Party, built his way up from there
  62. Beer Hall Putsch
    An armed uprising in Munich of maybe 50 people at most, crushed, Hitler's idea
  63. Mein Kampf
    Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer
  64. Hitler's goals
    He wanted to declare the superiority of Aryan race, create more living space for them, and make himself eternal supreme dictator for life
  65. Lebensraum
    German for "habitat" or literally "living space") served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
  66. Nazi racial theories
    Felt that Aryan white people were most superior, Scandinavian were 2nd best, French were 3rd, and the slavs, jews, and pretty much the rest were the worst
  67. Reichstag fire & fallout
    Hitler used this to launch his dictatorship and used this to give him power. It was a fire of a capital building
  68. Enabling Act
    Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for 4 years
  69. Nuremburg Laws
    Laws that classified a jew as someone having one or more jewish grandparent
  70. Kristallnacht
    A night of violence and vandalism against Jews
  71. Hitler's Popularity – how popular & why
    Hitler was popular for promising economic recovery and delivering
  72. Goldhagen Thesis
    This said that ordinary Germans not only knew about, but also supported, the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist" anti-Semitism in the German identity, which had developed in the preceding centuries
  73. Rhineland remilitarization
    when Germany moved into the Rhineland and beefed up the military, Britain and France still wanted appeasement and did nothing
  74. Appeasement
    The idea that Britain could pacify Germany and make sure there was no war at any cost.
  75. Austrian Anschluss
    The forceful union of Austria into Germany
  76. Hitler's Foreign Policy
    Made friends with Italy, did stuff behind the table with Russia, and hated everyone else
  77. Sudetenland
    The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.
  78. Munich Conference
    An agreement/conference that gave Germany the Sudetenland
  79. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
    The three countries of Italy, Germany, and Japan allied together
  80. Polish Corridor
    The strip of Poland that the Germans wanted to take, specifically Danzig
  81. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
    A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
  82. Grand Alliance – members & goals
    The members of the Grand alliance were America, Britain, and the Soviet Union; their goals were to Smash the aggressors, Europe first, then Asia
  83. Course of WWII
    First war in Europe, then war in Asia
  84. Dunkirk
    A mass flee of British troops of the coast of France, disaster, lost thousands of machines and vehicles
  85. Stalingrad
    Decisive battle in German invasion of Russia, the Germans were surrounded and systemically destroyed
  86. El Alamein
    Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria
  87. Sicily
    An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later
  88. D-Day
    The most important battle in the European part of the war, allies stormed beaches and made it through to the mainland, landing in France and moving towards Germany
  89. Midway
    An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers
  90. Iwo Jima
    One of the Bloodiest battles in the war, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan
  91. Final Solution / Holocaust
    was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of its systematic genocide against European Jewry during World War II, resulting in the final, most deadly phase of the Holocaust
  92. A-bombs – Hiroshima, Nagasaki
    The final straw for the Japanese, resulting in millions of civilian and military death. Little Boy and Fat Man were used here. These flew on the plane "The Enola Gay"
  93. One man, one plan, one mustache
    The amazing movie that dictates the life and failure of Hitler
  94. Paul Valéry
    French poet and critic that spoke of a "crisis of the mind," and "a dark future for Europe"
  95. Friedrich Nietzsche
    German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
  96. Georges Sorel
    A French socialist who thought there socialism would come from a general strike of all workers that would cripple the capitalist system. Thought that socialism was an improbable religion rather than accepted truth. Thought that the new socialist governments would not be democratic, rather controlled by a small revolutionary elite. He did not like democracy
  97. Ludwig Wittgenstein
    Was an Austrian philosopher and a logical empiricist who argued in Essay on Logical Philosophy that great philosophical questions like god freedom and morality were "quite literally senseless."
  98. Henri Bergson
    a French philosophy professor who said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking
  99. Jean Paul Sartre
    A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.
  100. Søren Kierkegaard
    Danish religious philosopher who made a total religious commitment to a remote and majestic god, after rejecting formalistic religion
  101. Karl Barth
    A Swiss Protestant theologian who said people were sinful and that religious truth was made know to humans only through God's grace, and people just had to accept God as true and be obedient.
  102. Gabriel Marcel
    Leading existential Christian thinker, thought catholic church was "hope, humanity, honesty, and piety," after broken world and WWI, also advocated closer ties with non-Catholics
  103. Marie Curie
    A Polish physicist who, with French husband Pierre, discovered radium emits subatomic particles
  104. Albert Einstein
    German-Jewish physicist that undermined Newtonian physics and developed theory of relativity
  105. Max Planck
    German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"
  106. Werner Heisenberg
    A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities
  107. Sigmund Freud
    The love of my life. Said that there were three points were man was stripped of his specialness. Copernicus said that man was not center of universe; Darwin said that man is not God's special creation; and Freud said that man is savage. Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious. His most controversial idea was that all humans are sexual beings and have sexual desires. Then he said there were three phases of human development the Oral phase, the Anal phase, and the Oedipal phase. After WWI it became ok to talk about Freud's ideas.
  108. James Joyce
    An Irish novelist who wrote Ulysses, a stream of consciousness book that mirrored Homer's book
  109. Oswald Spengler
    an obscure German high school teacher who wrote Decline of the West, said the west was about to be conquered by Asians
  110. Walter Gropius
    German architect who broke form previous design with light, airy, bright buildings of glass and iron
  111. Claude Monet
    French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
  112. Pierre Auguste Renoir
    a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
  113. Vincent Van Gogh
    A Dutch expressionist who painted a "moving visions in his mind's eye"
  114. Paul Gaugin
    French stockbroker turned painter, pioneered expressionist techniques and fled to South Pacific
  115. Paul Cézanne
    A postimpressionist and expressionist who had a profound impact on 20th century art and committed to form
  116. Henrí Matisse
    Henrí Matisse
  117. Pablo Picasso
    a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes
  118. Wassily Kandinski
    Russia painter who "turned away from nature" and focused on nonrepresentational, abstract art
  119. Igor Stravinsky
    composer, wrote Rite of Spring, expressionist ballet, shocked crowds because of music and scenes
  120. Alban Berg
    composer of opera Wozzeck, atonal music with half spoken, half sung dialogue, violence and expression
  121. Arnold Schönberg
    Viennese founder of 12 tone music and turned back on conventional tones
  122. John Maynard Keynes
    Young English economist who denounced Treaty of Versailles and said that people needed to revise treaty and help German econ. He Wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace. Said Britain needed Germany, and if the German market went under, Britain econ would go under. His book was one of the major reasons that the British were sympathetic towards Germany.
  123. Raymond Poincaré
    French Prime Minister who moved and occupied into the Ruhr to collect war reparations
  124. Gustav Stresemann
    German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr
  125. Leon Blum
    Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems
  126. Psycho-social impact of WWI
    Social Impact was impact on social class structures and breakdown of aristocracy and other inter class structures. After the war more people did not have servants. The Psycho impact was that people viewed humanity as both savage and pointless, because they just fought a pointless war
  127. Logical Empiricism
    The philosophical ideology that simply rejected the concerns of modern philosophy, like god and morality. Mainly started with Austrian philosopher Wittgenstein.
  128. Existentialism
    The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves. Existentialism mainly influenced by Nietzsche. Existentialism sustain popularity in Germany with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers who appealed to university students.
  129. Christian Revival
    Was a reaction to the loss of faith in humans, which came from the war, and lead to renewed interest in Christian view of the world. Major people were Kierkegaard, Barth, and Marcel
  130. The New Physics
    Pioneered by the Curies, Plank and Einstein, a new view of physics that shattered the perfect world of Newtonian physics and made the world seem much more random and not as much certainty.
  131. Uncertainty Principle
    The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg.
  132. Id, Ego, Superego
    Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious.
  133. Oedipal Complex
    Freudian physiological idea that if you did not get over loving your parent of the opposite sex, you would have this complex where you hated your other parent and have issues with parental relations.
  134. Stream-of-Consciousness
    Literary technique that explored the psyche through different idea randomly bubbling up in a story.
  135. Functionalism
    A new principle of building design that focused on buildings being functional which means serving the purpose it was made for best
  136. Bauhaus
    A Weimar (German) architectural school created by Walter Gropius which combined the fine arts and functionalism
  137. Impressionism
    An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
  138. Post-Impressionism
    An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.
  139. Cubism
    An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
  140. Abstract-Expressionism
    An artistic movement that focused on expressing emotion and feelings through abstract images and colors, lines and shapes.
  141. Dadaism
    An artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.
  142. Surrealism
    An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images
  143. British-French Tensions
    differences between French and British were over the treatment of the Germans, specifically on the payment of reparations
  144. The Little Entente
    The French alliance between the smaller countries of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
  145. Ruhr Crisis 1923
    When France occupied the Ruhr coal fields to demand that the German pay their reparations
  146. Hyperinflation
    When the German economy tried to print bills to pay off their debt, inflation rates of 40% a day
  147. Dawes Plan
    The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
  148. Locarno Pact / Spirit of Locarno
    The pact was an agreement to define the border between France and Germany, and in which Britain and Italy would gang up on the aggressor if the treaty was broken. The spirit was this feeling that war could be stopped again by peace talks that settled in Europe after the pact
  149. Kellogg-Briand Pact
    Was a pact that said that just said was bad, but did not outline any method for preventing war.
  150. Labor-Liberal-Conservative Cooperation in Britain
    The three party system that makes sure that both the conservative and the labor party don't get too radical.
  151. Great Depression – Causes, efforts to deal with
    The immediate cause was the American using margin buying to buy shares of stock that they could not pay back, and forced a mass selloff of shares, which collapsed the stock market and the economy. The efforts to deal was the New Deal in America, and different stances of social programs and socialism in Europe.
  152. Social Democrats
    The largest political party in Sweden, who pushed for social reform legislation, and drew support from community and socialist and capitalist working together
  153. Popular Front
    was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
  154. The Middle Way
    The Scandinavian system of in the middle of socialism and capitalism, an ideology that you can have some of your own things and keep some of your money, and have higher tax rates.
  155. "Conquistadors"
    This was the name given to the Spanish explorers who would conquer the land they discovered and utilize the resources they found there for Spain
  156. "Crown from the gutter"
    This was the expression used after the Revolutions of 1848 where Friedrich Wilhelm refused to just take the throne of Prussia
  157. "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
    The motto of the French Revolution and the demands of the popular people
  158. "Separation of powers"
    This was the theory developed by Montesquieu that political power should not be divided and share by a variety of classes and legal estates holding unequal rights and privileges
  159. Spanish Armada
    This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots
  160. Universal Man"
    This was the term given to those in the Renaissance who were able to excel in more than one subject matter
  161. 19th century class structure
    Aristocracy > Middle Class (Upper > Middle > Lower) > Working Classes (Labor Aristocracy > Semiskilled > Unskilled)
  162. Alexander I
    This czar of Russia wanted to restore the kingdom of Poland, which he wanted to bestow the benefits of his rule
  163. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    This was the work that started the tabula rasa theory where the human mind is blank until it is filled with experiences that allow a person to think differently
  164. Anabaptists
    These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized
  165. Bacon
    This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
  166. Banking Families
    These were the major families in Europe that had the most power and control of the wealth in a state
  167. Battle of Austerlitz
    This massive victory by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France
  168. Battle of Waterloo
    This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
  169. Bentham (Utilitarianism)
    This man believed that the moral worth of an action is determined by its contribution to happiness as summed among all persons
  170. Botticelli
    The artist shows the ideal for female beauty in the Renaissance in this work slender, pale skin, a high forehead, red-blond hair, and sloping shoulders
  171. Boyle
    This was the physicist who said nothing can be known beyond all doubt
  172. Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
    This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory
  173. Cabral
    This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India
  174. Brunelleschi
    He was an architect who designed a hospital for orphans and foundlings set up by the silk-workers guild in Florence
  175. Carbonari
    These were groups of secret revolutionary societies in Italy
  176. Cardinal Mazarin
    This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
  177. Cardinal Richelieu
    This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
  178. Causes of the French Revolution
    1) The economic and financial crisis that led to the calling of the Estates General. 2) The political incompetence of Louis XV and XVI. 3) The unfair taxation between the three estates
  179. Cervantes
    This man was a poet, playwright and novelist and wrote one of the best known novels ever (Don Quixote)
  180. Charists
    Their demand was universal male suffrage
  181. Charles Darwin
    This was the scientist who published the theory of evolution after his travels to the Galapagos Islands
  182. Charles II
    This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king
  183. Charles Talleyrand
    This was the French supporter of Metternich's balance of power idea
  184. Charles V
    This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
  185. Columbus
    This was the man who discovered Americas while originally looking for a faster and all-sea route to the East but instead landed in the West Indies.
  186. Combination Acts
    These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union
  187. Commercial revolution
    This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
  188. Committee of Public Safety
    This was the group that carried out the Reign of Terror
  189. Concert of Europe (Congress System)
    This was the system set up by the Quadruple Alliance to meet periodically to talk about common issues
  190. Concordat of 1801
    This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
  191. Congress of Vienna
    This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
  192. Conservatism
    This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
  193. Copernicus
    This was the man who first theorized that the celestial bodies all revolved around a fixed sun
  194. Corn Laws
    These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
  195. Cosmo deMedici
    One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government
  196. Cottage industry
    This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
  197. Council of Trent
    This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants
  198. da Gama
    This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and sail into the Indian Ocean trade
  199. Da Vinci
    One of the best examples of a Renaissance man. He painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas
  200. Dante
    First comedy writer that wrote 100 verses that described the realms of the next world
  201. Danton
    One of the leaders of The Mountain
  202. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
  203. Deism
    This was a way of thinking that God exists, but does not intervene in daily life, for he already has a plan for the universe that cannot be altered
  204. Descartes
    This thinker developed a philosophy of two different worlds a material world and a world of the mind. This was called Cartesian dualism. He combined his ideas with Bacon to form the scientific method
  205. Dialectics
    This was the philosophical belief that for every thesis ever, there is an opposing antithesis that creates a synthesis
  206. Diaz
    This was the first explorer who rounded the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope but was never able to go all the way around
  207. Diet of Worms
    This was the conference that Charles V called to bring Martin Luther to speak
  208. Doge
    The ruler of Venice
  209. Donatello
    One of the first and best Renaissance sculptors. He was also one of the first artists to sell his works
  210. Dutch Revolt
    This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state
  211. Edict of Nantes
    This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots
  212. Edward VI
    During his short reign of England, Protestant ideas exerted a significant influence on the religious life of the country
  213. Edwin Chadwick
    This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
  214. Effects of the Scientific Revolution
    This involved the beginning of using reason to solve problems in the community by using inductive and deductive reasoning
  215. El Cid
    This was the Spanish equivalent to the Knights of the Round Table
  216. Eli Whitney
    This man invented the cotton gin which allowed for the faster picking of cotton in the Americas
  217. Elizabeth I
    This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
  218. Emile
    This work advocated breast feeding and natural dress and that boys' education should have plenty of fresh air and exercise and he said a women's nature was a life of marriage and child rearing
  219. Emile Zola
    This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized
  220. Enclosure movement
    This was the way that the English landowners would now organize their land so that the farmers would become more productive in their work
  221. Encyclopedia
    This was the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was put on the Index of Forbidden Books because it dealt with controversial issues
  222. English Civil War
    This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
  223. Erasmus
    This man was a writer who would plea for simple Christian faith and would criticize the complexity of Catholic faith
  224. Estates-General
    This was the group of people called by Louis XVI that would keep the king in check like the English Parliament
  225. Evolutionary Socialism
    This was the work that suggested that socialists should combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions, and further economic development
  226. Favorable balance of trade
    This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
  227. Ferdinand and Isabella
    This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
  228. Francesco Sforza
    The Duke of Florence and the old ruler of the city-states of Italy
  229. Francis I
    This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
  230. Francis Xavier
    This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
  231. Francois Guizot
    This man was an active player in the French Revolution of 1848 who helped in the overthrow of Charles X
  232. Franz Liszt
    This was a pianist in the Romanticism era that was a star in his day
  233. Frederick Elector of Saxony
    This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms
  234. Frederick the Great
    This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
  235. Frederick William (The Great Elector)
    This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
  236. Frederick William IV
    This king of Prussia was the king who gave into Prussia's constitution
  237. Galileo
    This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
  238. Georg Hegel
    This man believed that each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas and a new synthesis
  239. Georges Haussmann
    This was the man who planned the reconstruction of Paris
  240. Ghibeleines
    This is the political faction in Italy that supported the Holy Roman Empire
  241. Giotto
    An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
  242. Girondists
    These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
  243. Giuseppe Mazzini
    This early Italian nationalist believed that doing labor for the principles of one's country is labor for humanity
  244. Glorious Revolution
    This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
  245. Gold Glory and God
    This was the motto of the age of exploration. The explorers were looking for money, glory, or to convert non-Christians
  246. Greek revolution
    The Greeks revolted against the Ottomans for their independence, to which the Concert generally opposed to this
  247. Guelph
    This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
  248. Habeas Corpus Act
    This was act in which any people unlawfully detained could be prosecuted
  249. Hapsburgs
    This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
  250. Harvey
    This was the man who first detailed the accounted for the circulation of blood flow
  251. Henry Bessemer
    This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
  252. Henry IV of France
    This was the king who issued the Edict of Nantes
  253. Henry VIII
    This was the man who started the Church of England because he needed a reformation in Catholicism which would allow him to divorce his wife
  254. Hohenzollerns
    This was the royal dynasty of electors in Prussia
  255. Holy Alliance
    This was the alliance between Austria Prussia and Russia on the crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution.
  256. House of Orange
    This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution
  257. Huguenots
    These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes
  258. Humanism
    The philosophy of the liberal arts that emphasized human beings and their achievements
  259. Hus
    A man who helped to shed some light on the church's problems with hurting the people that follow the religion. He was seen as a radical and was not allowed to study John Wycliffe's publications yet was executed after he was tried for heresy
  260. Ignatius of Loyola
    This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
  261. Index of Prohibited Literature
    This was the list of books that were prohibited by the papacy in order to stop more religious thinkers
  262. Institutes of the Christian Religion
    This was the work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of John Calvin
  263. Jacobins
    This was the group of people in the National Assembly that met to discuss the political questions of the day
  264. James Hargreaves
    This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
  265. James II
    This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
  266. Jean Bodin
    This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice
  267. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    This man developed the first cohesive theory of evolution after his studies of biology
  268. Jesuits
    This was the group of people that was important in converting Asians and Latin Americans to Catholicism which allowed for the mass spread of Christianity
  269. Johann Gutenberg
    Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books
  270. Johann Tetzel
    This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully
  271. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    This German Romantic poet influence Walter Scott
  272. John Calvin
    This was another leader in the Reformation who believed in a simple faith and a simple method of worship
  273. John Constable (The Haywain)
    This man was a Romantic painter
  274. John Kay
    Man who revolutionized the one-hand loom and increased the production done by one worker
  275. John Knox
    This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops
  276. Joseph II
    This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
  277. Joseph Lister
    This man promoted the idea of sterilizing medical equipment before operating
  278. July Decrees
    These decrees limited the voting rights of the wealthy and censored the press
  279. June Days
    These were the French workers' revolts in 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops
  280. Kant
    This philosopher showed the overall attitude of the Enlightenment by saying "have the courage to use your own understanding"
  281. Karl Marx
    This man came up with the idea of communism/dialectic socialism that said that two classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
  282. Karlsbad Decrees
    These decrees required the thirty-eight German member states to root out subversive ideas in the universities and newspapers an established a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations
  283. Kepler
    This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
  284. Klemens von Metternich
    This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
  285. Labor aristocracy
    This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
  286. Laissez-faire capitalism
    This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
  287. Lajos Kossuth
    This man was a Hungarian nationalist leader who demanded independence and a constitution
  288. Liberalism (Classical Liberalism)
    This was the political idea in which the government did not intervene in the economy and liberty and equality were stressed
  289. Line of Demarcation
    This was the line drawn by Alexander VI that gave Portugal most of Brazil and Spain the rest of South America
  290. Lord Byron
    This English poet joined the Greeks and died fighting so that they may be free
  291. Lorenzo the Magnificent
    This was an artistic patron that spent vast sums on family chapels, frescoes, religious panels and
  292. Louis Blanc
    This man urged people to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully
  293. Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
    This was the first French president as a result of the election after the Revolution of 1848
  294. Louis Pasteur
    This was the man who began studying fermentation to develop a way to avoid spoilage through pasteurization by heating the beverage
  295. Louis XIII
    This French king appointed Cardinal Richelieu
  296. Louis XIV
    This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
  297. Louis XVIII
    This was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile
  298. Luddites
    These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines

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