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2009-11-15 00:58:39
Chapter 17 Micro

Micro Chapter 17
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  1. Define Adaptive Immunity
    Defenses which are specific to a particular infectious agent.
  2. Define Humoral Immunity
    mediated by antibodies (Ab) that circulate in the blood.
  3. Define Cell Mediated Immunity
    • Escpecially effective in areas that are inaccessible to antibodies.
    • Activiated by T-cells.
    • When cells are infected with agent.
  4. Define Epitope.
    • aka. Antigenic determinates.
    • areas on the molecule to which antibodies can bind.
  5. What is the function of B cells?
    • produced and differentiated in human bone marrow.
    • produce antibodies against antigens.
  6. What is the structure of antibodies?
    • Y shaped proteins - Consists of 4 protein chains 2heavy, 2 lights.
    • Variable regions 2 antigen binding sites unique for each antibody.
    • have highly specific binding sites for antigens.
    • 5 major constant regions which account for the 5 classes of Immunoglobulins (Ig).
    • Region determine the class of antibody/Each class of IG plays a different role in Immunity.
    • Where complement binds in the classical pathway.
    • Recognistion site for phagocytes.
  7. How many classes of Immunoglobulins are made?
    5 classes.
  8. What are the classes of Immunoglobulins (Ig)?
    • IgG.
    • IgA.
    • IgD.
    • IgM.
    • IgE
  9. What is the function of IgG?
    • Occurs in single protein (monomer).
    • prominent in blood - acccounts for 80% of all Ig in serum.
    • Main antibody upon 2nd exposure.
    • IgG is the only antibody to cross the placenta and give immunity to the fetus.
    • activates classical complement pathway.
  10. What is the function of IgA?
    • Primary antibody of mucosal surfaces in Resp, Urogen, & Digest systems.
    • Most abundant antibody in tissue.
    • IgA may remain in your tissue or be secreted.
    • Secreated IgA is a dimer.
    • Colostrum, saliva, tears, sweat contain IgA.
    • probable function to bind pathogens before they can attach to cells.
  11. What is the function of IgD?
    • Monomer structure.
    • IgD antibodies are attached to the outside of B Cells.
    • Acts as receptors or sensors for these cells.
  12. What is the function of IgM?
    • 1st antibody to appear in response to initial exposure to antigen.
    • Monomer IgM found on surface of B Cells.
    • IgM in blood: a pentamer: 10 antigen-binding sites.
    • Responsible for reaction to blood typing.
  13. What is the function of IgE?
    • IgE binds to the outside of mast cells.
    • When the IgE's antigen attaches, the mast cell degranulates.
    • When the mast cell degranulates releases histamine.
    • When the mast cell degranulates it causes inflammation and/or allergies.
  14. Three methods antibodies eliminated pathogens?
    • Neutralization.
    • Opsonization.
    • Lysis.
  15. What is specificity?
    • Each reaction is directed toward a specific foreign antigen.
    • Response to one antigen generally has no effect on other antigens.
  16. What are examples of Natural Acquired Active?
    Exposure to Infectious agent.
  17. What are examples of Artificially Acquired Active?
    We get this from vaccines, also called immunizations.
  18. What are examples of Passive Naturally Acquired?
    We get this from our mom.
  19. What are examples of Artificial Acquired Passive?
    We get this from injection of antibodies from another person or animal. This can be called Gamma globulin, antitoxin, or hperimmune serum.
  20. What is example of Innate Immunity.
    Genetic Factors.
  21. Describe the process of how B Cells make antibodies?
    • B cells originate in bone marrow. (Lymphoned stem cells differentiates into pre-B cells)
    • During B cell development different variations of IgM & IgD will be attached to surface.
    • During exposure, antigen binding to the IgM, or IgD on B cell will activate that cell.
    • Antibody on surface of B cell encounters an antigen.
    • Specific Interaction - Antigen binds to the antibody and activates the B Cell.
    • Activation of the B cell.
  22. What happens when a B cell leads to Colonal Expansion.
    • B Cell that was activated makes two types of B cells.
    • Plasma cells whcih produce antibodies to that specific antigen.
    • memory cells used for remembering the antigen in case of 2nd encounter
  23. Do Memory Cells produce antibodies?
    Memory Cells Do NOT produce antibodies.
  24. What activates B Cells
    Specific interaction, antigen binds to the antibody.
  25. Whate is Expansion.
    • Each activated B cell will be responsible for making only a unique antibody specific for a certain antigen.
    • producing a large population of identical B cells (clone).
  26. What are Plasma cells?
    • B lympocites which produce and secrete massive amounts of the specifice antibody.
    • Can stimulate the cell medicated response.
  27. What are Memory B Cells?
    • long living cells for the purpose of a re-encounter with the antigen.
    • creates a secondary response that is faster and stronger than the primary response.
  28. Primary response.
    • The first tiem the antigen or infection is encountered.
    • Initial B cell clonal expansion.
    • Response dominated by IgM.
    • Memory cells are generated.
  29. Whate is Antibody Titer?
    a measurement of antibody levels in blood (serum)
  30. What do Antibody Titers Used for?
    • Used to detect infection.
    • Antibodies can also be isolated, purriefied and used in detection tests.
  31. What is Secondary, anamnestic response?
    • B cell memory cells are activated.
    • Memory cells differentiate into antibody producing plasma cells and produce antibody IgG instead of IgM.
    • IgG appears faster and in greater quantity upon 2nd exposure.
    • More memory cells are genereated.
  32. Where are B cells produced?
    • B lympocytes (B cells) are produced in bone morrow.
    • Lympoid stem cells diffenetiates into pre-b cells
  33. Where are T cells produced?
    Produced in bone morrow.
  34. B Cells mature in?
    Lymphoid Tissues.
  35. Where do T cells mature?
    T cells mature in the Thymus.
  36. What are the three types of T cells?
    • Helper T Cells (CD4).
    • Cytotoxic T Cells (CD8).
    • Memory T Cells.
  37. How are Helper T Cells activated?
    • Helper T Cells are activate when a macrophage and or dendritic presents the antigen to the T cell.
    • these are called Antigen Presenting Cells (APC).