Biology 100

Card Set Information

Author:
MaryHogan
ID:
9581
Filename:
Biology 100
Updated:
2010-03-11 20:37:48
Tags:
Biology
Folders:

Description:
Biology Exam #2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user MaryHogan on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Procaryote Cells
    • Cells without true nucleus.
    • Ex. Bacteria
  2. Ribosomes
    • Part of procaryote cell
    • Site of protien synthesis
  3. Eucaryotic Cells
    Cells with a true nucleus
  4. Chromatin
    • Part of eucaryotic cells
    • Fibers of DNA
  5. Vacuoles
    • Digestion
    • Chemical storage
    • H2O balence
    • Cell enlargement
  6. Chloroplast
    Converts solar energy to sugar molecules
  7. Mitochondria
    • Powerhouse; Convert energy
    • Ex. Glucose => ATP
    • Where most ATP is produced
    • Where most cellular respiration occurs
  8. Nucleolus
    • Mass of chromatin, DNA, RNA, & protiens
    • Where ribosomes are costructed
  9. Lysosomes
    • Digest materials
    • Fuse with white blood cells to destroy bacteria
    • Transport vehicle
  10. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Ribosomes on membrane
    • Site of protien synthesis
    • Where cell membrane is produced
  11. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Found in the liver
    • Production of lipids
    • Detoxification of drugs, degrades alcohol & cholesterol
    • Formation of hormones & steroids
    • Stores calcium ions in muscles
  12. Goolgi Complex
    • Distribution Center
    • Recieves, stores, modifies, & distributes chemical products of the cell
  13. Diffusion
    Particles spread out from more concentrated areas to less concentrated across a permeable membrane
  14. Osmosis
    Passive transport of H2O
  15. Facilitated Diffusion
    Protiens move substances thru cell walls
  16. Active Transport
    • 2 Types:
    • Endocytosis
    • Exocytosis
  17. Endocytosis
    Moves particles in
  18. Exocytosis
    Moves particles out
  19. Phagocytosis
    Cellular eating
  20. Hypertonic
    Higher concentration of solutes
  21. Hypotonic
    Lower concentration of solutes
  22. Isotonic
    Equal concentration of solutes
  23. Potential Energy
    Capacity to do work
  24. Kinetic Energy
    Energy to actually do work
  25. 2 Types of Chemical Reactions
    • Endergonic Reactions
    • Exergonic Reactions
  26. Endergonic Reactions
    • Require energy
    • Ex. Photosynthesis
  27. Exergonic Reaction
    • Releases energy
    • Ex. Wood burning
  28. Cellular Respiration
    Definition #1
    Creating energy from food molecules by your cells
  29. Cellular Respiration
    Definition #2
    Cell takes apart a glucose molecule & taps the energy carried by electrons being rearranged when old bonds break & new ones form
  30. Cellular Respiration
    Formula
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2+ 6H2O + ENERGY (ATP)
  31. Redox Reactions
    • Reductions = addition of electrons
    • Oxidation = loss of electrons
  32. 3 Kinds of Work Cells Perform
    • Mechanical - movement of cilia
    • Transport - brain cells pump ions across their membranes
    • Chemical - linking amino acids -> protiens
  33. 3 Stages of Cellular Respiration
    • Glycolysis
    • Kreb's Cycle
    • Electron Transport Chain
  34. Glycolysis
    Happens in cytoplasm

    Glucose => Peruvic Acid + Energy (ATP, NADH)
  35. Kreb's Cycle
    Happens in mitochondria

    Peruvic Acid -> C-C-C ->CO2 kicked off

    C-C(acetic acid) + CoEnzyme A + ATP
  36. Electron Transport Chain
    • Happens in mitochondria membrane
    • Stores electrons from stages 1 & 2 to make most cells ATP
  37. Long Wavelengths...
    Have less energy than shorter wavelengths
  38. Photosynthesis
    • Ultimate source of food for every organism
    • The most important chemical process on Earth
  39. Photosynthesis
    Formula
    6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2
  40. Photosynthesis
    Stage #1 - Light Reaction
    • Occurs in thylakoid membrane
    • Absorbs solar energy
    • Converts to chemical energy stored in ATP & NADH
    • Doesn't produce sugar, only energy!
  41. Sexual Reproduction
    • Union of sperm & egg
    • Creates genetic variation
  42. Asexual Reproduction
    • Production of offspring by a single parent without egg & sperm
    • Produces exact genetic replicas
    • Also called binary fussion
    • Ex. Bacteria reproduce this way
  43. Mitosis
    • Daughter cells with same # of chromosomes
    • Identical copies
  44. Meiosis
    Reduces # of chromosomes by 1/2
  45. Homologous Chromosomes
    A pair of chromosomes that look alike & carry the same genes for the same trait (exception, sex chromosomes)
  46. Eucaryote Reproduction
    • Have true nucleus
    • When nucleus is not dividing DNA is a tangled mass of thin threads called chromatin
    • When it starts dividing DNA becomes highly coiled & condensed called chromosomes
  47. 3 Processes of Cell Division
    • Interphase - Cell prepares to replicate
    • Mitosis - Nuclear division resulting in the same # & kind of chromosomes in daughter cells as parent cells
    • Cytokinesis - Division of cytoplam
  48. Interphase G1
    Period before DNA synthesis increases in: protiens, organelles, size, MTOC & centriole pairs appear
  49. Interphase S
    DNA synthesis begins resulting in two sister chromatids (single DNA strand)
  50. Interphase G2
    Time from DNA synthesis to the onset of cell division
  51. 4 Main Stages of Mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  52. Prophase
    • Chromatin fibers condense, chromosomes visable
    • Nucleolus disappears
    • MTOC's begin to move towards poles
    • Miotic spindle grows out of nuclear membrane fragment
  53. Metaphase
    • Sister chromatids line up on equator of cell
    • MTOC's at poles
    • Spindle apparatus fully formed
    • * Centromere - where sister chromatids are connected
  54. Anaphase
    • Centromeres divide & chromosomes seperate
    • Daughter chromosomes move towards poles
  55. Telophase
    • Nuclear envelope forms around daughter cells
    • Nucleolis reappears
    • Chromosomes become diffused chromatin
  56. Cytokinesis
    Cell division
  57. Haploid
    Cells with a single set of chromosomes
  58. Gamate
    • Sex cells with haploid # of chromosomes
    • Ex. Sperm & eggs
  59. Diploid
    Homologous set of chromosomes (2 chromosomes)
  60. Stages of Meiosis I
    • Interphase
    • Prophase I
    • Metaphase I
    • Anaphase I
    • Telophase I
    • Cytokinesis
  61. Interphase I
    • Chromosomes replicate = 2 genetically identical sister chromotids
    • MTOC's with centriol pairs appear
  62. Prophase I
    • Most complex stage
    • 90% of cell reproduction cycle occurs here
    • Homologous chromosomes with identicals sister chromatids pair up forming a tetrad (4 chromotids)
  63. Metaphase I
    Tetrads line up on metaphase plate
  64. Anaphase I
    Chromosomes moving toward poles
  65. Telophase I & Cytokinesis
    • Chromosomes arrive at poles
    • Nuclear envelope appears

    Cytokinesis shows clevage furrow
  66. Meitosis II
    Is basically like a miotic division without chromosome replication
  67. Prophase II
    • Chromosomes condense
    • Spindle forms
    • Nuclear envelope fragments
  68. Metaphase II
    Chromotids line up on metaphase plate
  69. Anaphase II
    Sister chromotids seperate
  70. Telophase II & Cytokinesis
    4 haploid daughter cells (sperm or egg)
  71. Crossing Over
    • Original chromosomes break apart & exchange genetic information
    • Happens in prophase
  72. Independent Assortment
    • Chromosomes align independently (randomly) at metaphase plate
    • Maternal or paternal chromosomes may be oriented toward either pole
    • Happens in metaphase
  73. Cancer
    Normal cells in your body die after approximately 50 replications, cancer cells are immortal
  74. Cancer Cells
    • Don't have a properly functioning cell cycle control system therefore divide excessively
    • Uncontrollable growth
  75. Tumor
    Excessive cell growth resulting in an abnormal mass of cells
  76. Benign Tumor
    Abnormal mass of normal cells that remain at original site in body
  77. Malignant Tumor
    • Cancerous!
    • Capable of spreading out to surrounding tissues or other parts of body
  78. Metastasis
    Spread of cancer cells beyond original site
  79. Carsinoma
    • Originate on external or internal coverings
    • Ex. Skin, intestinal lining
  80. Sarcoma
    • A rise in tissue
    • Ex. Bone, muscle
  81. Lukemia & Lymphomias
    Cancers of the blood foring bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes
  82. Oncogene
    Genes that cause cancer
  83. Protooncegene
    Have potential to become oncogenes
  84. Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Taken from 5 day old blastocyst (blastula)
    • Will differentiate into any type of cell
  85. Adult Stem Cells
    • Scarcer that embryonic stem cells
    • Limited to tissue of origin
  86. Umbilical Cord Cells
    • Stem cells from newborn
    • Produce only blood cells (red & white & other parts of immune system

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview