European History 2

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European History 2
2010-03-08 02:35:34
Europe History Hale

AP Europeam history
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  1. Nicholas II
    Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
  2. Alexandra
    Last Tsarist of Russia, had a son who was a hemophiliac, and was put under the influence of Rasputin, where he exploited her. Ended up causing the collapse of the Tsars
  3. Grigori Rasputin
    a Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, twisted and cheated and exploited Alexandra.
  4. Alexander Kerensky
    An agrarian socialist who became prime minister. He refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important.
  5. Anton Denikin
    Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army and foremost general for the White Russians in the Russian civil war.
  6. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)
    opponent of Tsarist Russia, began to immerse himself in Marxian socialist ideas as a law student. He then went on to form the Bolsheviks, and tried to start a revolution in July 1917. It failed, he went into hiding, but regrouped in Petrograd, where he and his partner Trotsky gained power. He then moved on government buildings, and was declared the head of the new Bolshevik government.
  7. Leon Trotsky
    Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution
  8. Nikolai Bukharin Bolshevik
    revolutionary and political and intellectual thinker for Stalin. Supported the NEP
  9. Joseph Dzhugashvili (Stalin)
    Dictator of Russia, named man of steel. Was of lowly backgrounds but rose to power. Only in it for himself. Created 5 year plans.
  10. Sergei Kirov
    • A Political opponent of Stalin's who was executed for being more popular that Stalin
    • Benito Mussolini Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.
  11. Victor Emmanuel III
    King of Italy who gave Mussolini legitimacy as dictator
  12. Heinrich Brüning
    The German chancellor during the Weimar Republic who convinced the president to accept rule by decree
  13. Adolf Hitler
    Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust.
  14. Karl Lueger
    Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized
  15. Hermann Göring
    A Nazi politician and president of the Reichstag
  16. Rudolf Hess
    Deputy to Hitler in the Nazi party person who dictated Mein Kampf
  17. Joseph Goebbels
    Chief minister of the Nazi propaganda, and organizer of Kristallnacht
  18. Paul von Hindenburg
    President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933
  19. Franz von Papen
    Chancellor of Germany who succeeded Bruning
  20. Heinrich Himmler
    Inhumane and cruel leader of the SS in Germany, appointed by Hitler
  21. Neville Chamberlain
    Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement
  22. Francisco Franco
    Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
  23. Antonio de Oliveira Salzar
    served as the Prime Minister and dictator of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He founded and led the Estado Novo ("New State"), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974.
  24. Josef Pilsudaski
    was the authoritarian ruler of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he was a major influence in Poland's politics, and an important figure on the broader European political scene. He is considered largely responsible for Poland regaining independence in 1918, after a hundred and twenty-three years of partitions
  25. Béla Kun
    was a Hungarian Communist politician who ruled Hungary as leader of the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919
  26. Elie Halévy
    was a French philosopher and historian who wrote Era of Tyrannies, which talked about the different kinds of government and how they all stemmed out of nature of modern war.
  27. Henri-Philippe Pétain
    French leader of the Vichy republic of France, which was essentially Nazi France. He is seen as a traitor to his people by some Frenchman.
  28. Reasons for Russian weakness
    These were the reasons of bad leadership, and lack of organized or effective army
  29. Duma
    Russia's lower house of politics
  30. Relationship between Alexandra & Rasputin / Rasputin's assassination
    He used her to gain politically and to gain money for sex and drugs. He was then "assassinated" aka tried to be killed something like 8 times, then thrown in a river.
  31. Russian (March) Revolution/ Provisional Government
    The revolution of the unplanned overthrowing of the Tsarist government, and the government that followed the revolution.
  32. Petrograd Soviet
    the political party with whom the Provisional Government had to share power with
  33. Army Order Number 1
    Given by the Provisional Government, this stripped the army officers of power, and placed it in hand of elected committees. This collapsed army discipline
  34. Bolsheviks/Mensheviks
    The two rival communists groups. One weree true revolutionary Marxists, and the other were revisionist socialists.
  35. Bolshevik (October)
    Revolution Replaces the Provisional Government with Lenin's forces
  36. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Document that announced the withdrawal of Russia from WWI
  37. "White" forces
    • The opposition to the Bolsheviks and the Red army after the October rebellion and the Russian
    • Revolution
  38. Reasons for Bolshevik victory
    Three reasons anarchy was about and any person could create power; the Bolsheviks had better leaders; the Bolsheviks appealed to many workers
  39. War Communism
    The political idea that applied the total war concept on a civil conflict
  40. Cheka
    The old Tsarist secret police
  41. Totalitarianism
    is a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. These regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that controls the state, personality cults, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism. These states always have to be at war with something
  42. Conservative Authoritarianism Traditional
    form of antidemocratic government
  43. Radical Dictatorships
    leaders who violently rejected parliamentary restraint and liberal values, as well as exercised unprecedented control over masses and sought to mobilize them for war.
  44. Kronstadt Rebels
    Unsuccessful uprising of sailors, soldiers, and civilians against Russian government (against Bolsheviks)
  45. New Economic Policy
    Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry
  46. Stalin's rise
    He was totally focused on himself, double and tripled crossed, rose by gaining support of party
  47. Five Year plans
    – objectives, methods & success Objectives were to increase industrial output by 250% and agriculture output by 150% and have 1/5 of Russian peasants on collective farms. The methods were forced farming and scare tactics like gulags. The success was that of industry, which produced 4 times as much as before
  48. Soviet quality of life
    Life was hard, there was no improvement in the average standard of living, but unemployment was unknown and communism had real appeal
  49. Collectivization
    Putting smaller farms together into one large farm so as to increase productivity
  50. Kulaks
    The well off peasants who were starved or shipped to the gulags
  51. Ukrainian Famine
    The forced famine of Ukraine by Stalin over not producing enough grain
  52. Stalinization of culture
    The acceptance of Stalin though propaganda
  53. Great Purges
    Stalin's mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against
  54. "Socialism in one country"
    Idea that the Soviet Union had the ability to build socialism on its own
  55. Women in totalitarian states
    They were given more rights and had complete equality of rights
  56. Comintern
    was an international Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."
  57. Fascism
    • is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state with a
    • government led by a dictator who seeks national unity and development by requiring individuals to subordinate self-interest to the collective interest of the nation or race.
  58. Mussolini's Rise
    – role of Black Shirts These were Mussolini's bullies who pushed socialist out of Northern Italy
  59. Lateran Agreement
    In this, Mussolini recognized the Vatican as an independent state, and gave it heavy financial support
  60. Hitler's Rise
    Gained power through feeding off others, and promoting racist nationalist ideals. Gained control of the German Worker's Party, built his way up from there
  61. Beer Hall Putsch
    An armed uprising in Munich of maybe 50 people at most, crushed, Hitler's idea
  62. Mein Kampf
    Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer
  63. Hitler's goals
    He wanted to declare the superiority of Aryan race, create more living space for them, and make himself eternal supreme dictator for life
  64. Lebensraum (German for "habitat" or literally "living space")
    served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
  65. Nazi racial theories
    Felt that Aryan white people were most superior, Scandinavian were 2nd best, French were 3rd, and the slavs, jews, and pretty much the rest were the worst
  66. Reichstag fire & fallout
    Hitler used this to launch his dictatorship and used this to give him power. It was a fire of a capital building
  67. Enabling Act
    Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for 4 years
  68. Nuremburg Laws Laws
    that classified a jew as someone having one or more jewish grandparent
  69. Kristallnacht
    A night of violence and vandalism against Jews
  70. Hitler's Popularity
    – how popular & why Hitler was popular for promising economic recovery and delivering
  71. Goldhagen Thesis
    This said that ordinary Germans not only knew about, but also supported, the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist" anti-Semitism in the German identity, which had developed in the preceding centuries
  72. Rhineland remilitarization
    when Germany moved into the Rhineland and beefed up the military, Britain and France still wanted appeasement and did nothing
  73. Appeasement
    The idea that Britain could pacify Germany and make sure there was no war at any cost.
  74. Austrian Anschluss
    The forceful union of Austria into Germany
  75. Hitler's Foreign Policy
    Made friends with Italy, did stuff behind the table with Russia, and hated everyone else.
  76. Sudetenland
    The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.
  77. Munich Conference
    An agreement/conference that gave Germany the Sudetenland
  78. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
    The three countries of Italy, Germany, and Japan allied together
  79. Polish Corridor
    The strip of Poland that the Germans wanted to take, specifically Danzig
  80. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
    A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
  81. Grand Alliance
    – members & goals The members of the Grand alliance were America, Britain, and the Soviet Union; their goals were to Smash the aggressors, Europe first, then Asia
  82. Course of WWII First war
    in Europe, then war in Asia
  83. Dunkirk
    A mass flee of British troops of the coast of France, disaster, lost thousands of machines and vehicles
  84. Stalingrad
    Decisive battle in German invasion of Russia, the Germans were surrounded and systemically destroyed
  85. El Alamein
    Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria
  86. Sicily
    An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later
  87. D-Day
    The most important battle in the European part of the war, allies stormed beaches and made it through to the mainland, landing in France and moving towards Germany
  88. Midway
    An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers
  89. Iwo Jima
    One of the Bloodiest battles in the war, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan
  90. Final Solution / Holocaust
    was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of its systematic genocide against European Jewry during World War II, resulting in the final, most deadly phase of the Holocaust
  91. A-bombs – Hiroshima, Nagasaki
    • The final straw for the Japanese, resulting in millions of civilian and military death. Little Boy and Fat Man were used here. These flew on the plane "The Enola Gay"
    • One man, one plan, one mustache The amazing movie that dictates the life and failure of Hitler
  92. Paul Valéry
    French poet and critic that spoke of a "crisis of the mind," and "a dark future for Europe"
  93. Friedrich Nietzsche
    German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
  94. Georges Sorel
    A French socialist who thought there socialism would come from a general strike of all workers that would cripple the capitalist system. Thought that socialism was an improbable religion rather than accepted truth. Thought that the new socialist governments would not be democratic, rather controlled by a small revolutionary elite. He did not like democracy.
  95. Ludwig Wittgenstein
    Was an Austrian philosopher and a logical empiricist who argued in Essay on Logical Philosophy that great philosophical questions like god freedom and morality were "quite literally senseless."
  96. Henri Bergson
    A French philosophy professor who said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking
  97. Jean Paul Sartre
    A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.
  98. Søren Kierkegaard
    Danish religious philosopher who made a total religious commitment to a remote and majestic god, after rejecting formalistic religion
  99. Karl Barth
    A Swiss Protestant theologian who said people were sinful and that religious truth was made know to humans only through God's grace, and people just had to accept God as true and be obedient.
  100. Gabriel Marcel
    Leading existential Christian thinker, thought catholic church was "hope, humanity, honesty, and piety," after broken world and WWI, also advocated closer ties with non-Catholics
  101. Marie Curie
    A Polish physicist who, with French husband Pierre, discovered radium emits subatomic particles
  102. Albert Einstein
    German-Jewish physicist that undermined Newtonian physics and developed theory of relativity
  103. Max Planck
    German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"
  104. Werner Heisenberg
    A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.
  105. Sigmund Freud
    The love of my life. Said that there were three points were man was stripped of his specialness. Copernicus said that man was not center of universe; Darwin said that man is not God's special creation; and Freud said that man is savage. Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things,
  106. Id and Superego.
    All of this is going on the subconscious. His most controversial idea was that all humans are sexual beings and have sexual desires. Then he said there were three phases of human development the Oral phase, the Anal phase, and the Oedipal phase. After WWI it became ok to talk about Freud's ideas.
  107. James Joyce
    An Irish novelist who wrote Ulysses, a stream of consciousness book that mirrored Homer's book
  108. Oswald Spengler
    an obscure German high school teacher who wrote Decline of the West, said the west was about to be conquered by Asians.
  109. Walter Gropius
    German architect who broke form previous design with light, airy, bright buildings of glass and iron
  110. Claude Monet
    a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
  111. Pierre Auguste Renoir
    a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
  112. Vincent Van Gogh
    A Dutch expressionist who painted a "moving visions in his mind's eye"
  113. Paul Gaugin
    French stockbroker turned painter, pioneered expressionist techniques and fled to South Pacific
  114. Paul Cézanne
    A postimpressionist and expressionist who had a profound impact on 20th century art and committed to form
  115. Henrí Matisse
    An extreme abstract expressionist, leader of "the beasts," focused on arrangement of color, line and form
  116. Pablo Picasso
    a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes
  117. Wassily Kandinski
    Russia painter who "turned away from nature" and focused on nonrepresentational, abstract art
  118. Igor Stravinsky
    composer, wrote Rite of Spring, expressionist ballet, shocked crowds because of music and scenes
  119. Alban Berg
    composer of opera Wozzeck, atonal music with half spoken, half sung dialogue, violence and expression
  120. Arnold Schönberg
    Viennese founder of 12 tone music and turned back on conventional tones
  121. John Maynard Keynes
    Young English economist who denounced Treaty of Versailles and said that people needed to revise treaty and help German econ. He Wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace. Said Britain needed Germany, and if the German market went under, Britain econ would go under. His book was one of the major reasons that the British were sympathetic towards Germany.
  122. Raymond Poincaré
    French Prime Minister who moved and occupied into the Ruhr to collect war reparations
  123. Gustav Stresemann
    German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr
  124. Leon Blum
    Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems
  125. Psycho-social impact of WWI Social
    Impact was impact on social class structures and breakdown of aristocracy and other inter class structures. After the war more people did not have servants. The Psycho impact was that people viewed humanity as both savage and pointless, because they just fought a pointless war
  126. Logical Empiricism
    The philosophical ideology that simply rejected the concerns of modern philosophy, like god and morality. Mainly started with Austrian philosopher Wittgenstein.
  127. Existentialism
    The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves. Existentialism mainly influenced by Nietzsche. Existentialism sustain popularity in Germany with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers who appealed to university students.
  128. Christian Revival
    Was a reaction to the loss of faith in humans, which came from the war, and lead to renewed interest in Christian view of the world. Major people were Kierkegaard, Barth, and Marcel.
  129. The New Physics
    Pioneered by the Curies, Plank and Einstein, a new view of physics that shattered the perfect world of Newtonian physics and made the world seem much more random and not as much certainty.
  130. Uncertainty Principle
    The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg.
  131. Id, Ego, Superego
    Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious.
  132. Oedipal Complex
    A Freudian physiological idea that if you did not get over loving your parent of the opposite sex, you would have this complex where you hated your other parent and have issues with parental relations.
  133. Stream-of-Consciousness
    Literary technique that explored the psyche through different idea randomly bubbling up in a story.
  134. Functionalism
    A new principle of building design that focused on buildings being functional which means serving the purpose it was made for best
  135. Bauhaus A Weimar (German)
    architectural school created by Walter Gropius which combined the fine arts and functionalism
  136. Impressionism
    An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
  137. Post-Impressionism
    An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.
  138. Cubism
    An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
  139. Abstract-Expressionism
    An artistic movement that focused on expressing emotion and feelings through abstract images and colors, lines and shapes.
  140. Dadaism
    An artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.
  141. Surrealism
    An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images
  142. British-French
    Tensions differences between French and British were over the treatment of the Germans, specifically on the payment of reparations
  143. The Little Entente
    The French alliance between the smaller countries of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
  144. Ruhr Crisis 1923
    When France occupied the Ruhr coal fields to demand that the German pay their reparations
  145. Hyperinflation
    When the German economy tried to print bills to pay off their debt, inflation rates of 40% a day
  146. Dawes Plan
    The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
  147. Locarno Pact / Spirit of Locarno
    The pact was an agreement to define the border between France and Germany, and in which Britain and Italy would gang up on the aggressor if the treaty was broken. The spirit was this feeling that war could be stopped again by peace talks that settled in Europe after the pact
  148. Kellogg-Briand Pact
    Was a pact that said that just said was bad, but did not outline any method for preventing war.
  149. Labor-Liberal-Conservative Cooperation in Britain
    The three party system that makes sure that both the conservative and the labor party don't get too radical.
  150. Great Depression
    – Causes, efforts to deal with The immediate cause was the American using margin buying to buy shares of stock that they could not pay back, and forced a mass selloff of shares, which collapsed the stock market and the economy. The efforts to deal was the New Deal in America, and different stances of social programs and socialism in Europe.
  151. Social Democrats
    The largest political party in Sweden, who pushed for social reform legislation, and drew support from community and socialist and capitalist working together.
  152. Popular Front
    was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
  153. The Middle Way
    The Scandinavian system of in the middle of socialism and capitalism, an ideology that you can have some of your own things and keep some of your money, and have higher tax rates.
  154. "Conquistadors"
    This was the name given to the Spanish explorers who would conquer the land they discovered and utilize the resources they found there for Spain
  155. "Crown from the gutter"
    This was the expression used after the Revolutions of 1848 where Friedrich Wilhelm refused to just take the throne of Prussia
  156. "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
    The motto of the French Revolution and the demands of the popular people
  157. "Separation of powers"
    This was the theory developed by Montesquieu that political power should not be divided and share by a variety of classes and legal estates holding unequal rights and privileges
  158. "Spanish Armada"
    This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots
  159. "Universal Man"
    This was the term given to those in the Renaissance who were able to excel in more than one subject matter
  160. 19th century class structure
    Aristocracy > Middle Class (Upper > Middle > Lower) > Working Classes (Labor Aristocracy > Semiskilled > Unskilled)
  161. Alexander I
    This czar of Russia wanted to restore the kingdom of Poland, which he wanted to bestow the benefits of his rule
  162. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    This was the work that started the tabula rasa theory where the human mind is blank until it is filled with experiences that allow a person to think differently
  163. Anabaptists
    These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized
  164. Bacon
    This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
  165. Banking Families
    These were the major families in Europe that had the most power and control of the wealth in a state
  166. Battle of Austerlitz
    This massive victory by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France
  167. Battle of Waterloo
    This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
  168. Bentham (Utilitarianism)
    This man believed that the moral worth of an action is determined by its contribution to happiness as summed among all persons
  169. Botticelli
    The artist shows the ideal for female beauty in the Renaissance in this work slender, pale skin, a high forehead, red-blond hair, and sloping shoulders
  170. Boyle
    This was the physicist who said nothing can be known beyond all doubt
  171. Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
    This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory
  172. Brunelleschi
    He was an architect who designed a hospital for orphans and foundlings set up by the silk-workers guild in Florence
  173. Cabral
    This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India
  174. Carbonari
    These were groups of secret revolutionary societies in Italy
  175. Cardinal Mazarin
    This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
  176. Cardinal Richelieu
    This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
  177. Catherine the Great
    This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
  178. Causes of the French Revolution
    1) The economic and financial crisis that led to the calling of the Estates General. 2) The political incompetence of Louis XV and XVI. 3) The unfair taxation between the three estates
  179. Cervantes
    • This man was a poet, playwright and novelist and wrote one of the best known novels ever (Don Quixote)
    • Charists
    • Their demand was universal male suffrage
  180. Charles Darwin
    This was the scientist who published the theory of evolution after his travels to the Galapagos Islands
  181. Charles II
    This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king
  182. Charles Talleyrand
    This was the French supporter of Metternich's balance of power idea
  183. Charles V
    This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of
  184. Catholicism
    and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
  185. Columbus
    This was the man who discovered Americas while originally looking for a faster and all-sea route to the East but instead landed in the West Indies.
  186. Combination Acts
    These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union
  187. Commercial revolution
    This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
  188. Committee of Public Safety
    This was the group that carried out the Reign of Terror
  189. Concert of Europe (Congress System)
    This was the system set up by the Quadruple Alliance to meet periodically to talk about common issues
  190. Concordat of 1801
    This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
  191. Congress of Vienna
    This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
  192. Conservatism
    This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
  193. Copernicus
    This was the man who first theorized that the celestial bodies all revolved around a fixed sun
  194. Corn Laws
    These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
  195. Cosmo deMedici
    One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government
  196. Cottage industry
    This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
  197. Council of Trent
    This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants
  198. da Gama
    This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and sail into the Indian Ocean trade
  199. Da Vinci
    One of the best examples of a Renaissance man. He painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas
  200. Dante
    First comedy writer that wrote 100 verses that described the realms of the next world
  201. Danton
    One of the leaders of The Mountain
  202. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
  203. Deism
    This was a way of thinking that God exists, but does not intervene in daily life, for he already has a plan for the universe that cannot be altered
  204. Descartes
    This thinker developed a philosophy of two different worlds a material world and a world of the mind. This was called Cartesian dualism. He combined his ideas with Bacon to form the scientific method
  205. Dialectics
    This was the philosophical belief that for every thesis ever, there is an opposing antithesis that creates a synthesis
  206. Diaz
    This was the first explorer who rounded the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope but was never able to go all the way around
  207. Diet of Worms
    This was the conference that Charles V called to bring Martin Luther to speak
  208. Doge
    The ruler of Venice
  209. Donatello
    One of the first and best Renaissance sculptors. He was also one of the first artists to sell his works
  210. Dutch Revolt
    This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state
  211. Edict of Nantes
    This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots
  212. Edward VI
    During his short reign of England, Protestant ideas exerted a significant influence on the religious life of the country
  213. Edwin Chadwick
    This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
  214. Effects of the Scientific Revolution
    This involved the beginning of using reason to solve problems in the community by using inductive and deductive reasoning
  215. El Cid
    This was the Spanish equivalent to the Knights of the Round Table
  216. Eli Whitney
    This man invented the cotton gin which allowed for the faster picking of cotton in the Americas
  217. Elizabeth I
    • This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
    • Emile
    • This work advocated breast feeding and natural dress and that boys' education should have plenty of fresh air and exercise and he said a women's nature was a life of marriage and child rearing
  218. Emile Zola
    This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized
  219. Enclosure
    movement This was the way that the English landowners would now organize their land so that the farmers would become more productive in their work
  220. Encyclopedia
    This was the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was put on the Index of Forbidden Books because it dealt with controversial issues
  221. English Civil War
    This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
  222. Erasmus
    This man was a writer who would plea for simple Christian faith and would criticize the complexity of Catholic faith
  223. Estates-General
    This was the group of people called by Louis XVI that would keep the king in check like the English Parliament
  224. Evolutionary Socialism
    This was the work that suggested that socialists should combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions, and further economic development
  225. Favorable balance of trade
    This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
  226. Ferdinand and Isabella
    This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
  227. Francesco Sforza
    The Duke of Florence and the old ruler of the city-states of Italy
  228. Francis I
    • This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select
    • French bishops and abbots
  229. Francis Xavier
    This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
  230. Francois Guizot
    This man was an active player in the French Revolution of 1848 who helped in the overthrow of Charles X
  231. Franz Liszt
    This was a pianist in the Romanticism era that was a star in his day
  232. Frederick Elector of Saxony
    This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms
  233. Frederick the Great
    This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
  234. Frederick William (The Great Elector)
    This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
  235. Frederick William IV
    This king of Prussia was the king who gave into Prussia's constitution
  236. Galileo
    This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
  237. Georg Hegel
    This man believed that each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas and a new synthesis
  238. Georges Haussmann
    This was the man who planned the reconstruction of Paris
  239. Ghibeleines
    This is the political faction in Italy that supported the Holy Roman Empire
  240. Giotto
    An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
  241. Girondists
    These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
  242. Giuseppe Mazzini
    This early Italian nationalist believed that doing labor for the principles of one's country is labor for humanity
  243. Glorious Revolution
    This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
  244. Gold Glory and God
    This was the motto of the age of exploration. The explorers were looking for money, glory, or to convert non-Christians
  245. Greek revolution
    The Greeks revolted against the Ottomans for their independence, to which the Concert generally opposed to this
  246. Guelph
    This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
  247. Habeas Corpus Act
    This was act in which any people unlawfully detained could be prosecuted
  248. Hapsburgs
    This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
  249. Harvey
    This was the man who first detailed the accounted for the circulation of blood flow
  250. Henry Bessemer
    This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
  251. Henry IV of France
    This was the king who issued the Edict of Nantes
  252. Henry VIII
    This was the man who started the Church of England because he needed a reformation in Catholicism which would allow him to divorce his wife
  253. Hohenzollerns
    This was the royal dynasty of electors in Prussia
  254. Holy Alliance
    This was the alliance between Austria Prussia and Russia on the crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution.
  255. House of Orange
    This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution
  256. Huguenots
    These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes
  257. Humanism
    The philosophy of the liberal arts that emphasized human beings and their achievements
  258. Hus
    A man who helped to shed some light on the church's problems with hurting the people that follow the religion. He was seen as a radical and was not allowed to study John Wycliffe's publications yet was executed after he was tried for heresy
  259. Ignatius of Loyola
    This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
  260. Index of Prohibited Literature
    This was the list of books that were prohibited by the papacy in order to stop more religious thinkers
  261. Institutes of the Christian Religion
    This was the work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of John Calvin
  262. Jacobins
    This was the group of people in the National Assembly that met to discuss the political questions of the day
  263. James Hargreaves
    This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
  264. James II
    This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
  265. Jean Bodin
    This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice
  266. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    This man developed the first cohesive theory of evolution after his studies of biology
  267. Jesuits
    This was the group of people that was important in converting Asians and Latin Americans to Catholicism which allowed for the mass spread of Christianity
  268. Johann Gutenberg
    Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books
  269. Johann Tetzel
    This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully
  270. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    This German Romantic poet influence Walter Scott
  271. John Calvin
    This was another leader in the Reformation who believed in a simple faith and a simple method of worship
  272. John Constable (The Haywain)
    This man was a Romantic painter
  273. John Kay
    Man who revolutionized the one-hand loom and increased the production done by one worker
  274. John Knox
    This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops
  275. Joseph II
    This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
  276. Joseph Lister
    This man promoted the idea of sterilizing medical equipment before operating
  277. July Decrees
    These decrees limited the voting rights of the wealthy and censored the press
  278. June Days
    These were the French workers' revolts in 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops
  279. Kant
    This philosopher showed the overall attitude of the Enlightenment by saying "have the courage to use your own understanding"
  280. Karl Marx
    This man came up with the idea of communism/dialectic socialism that said that two classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
  281. Karlsbad Decrees
    These decrees required the thirty-eight German member states to root out subversive ideas in the universities and newspapers an established a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations
  282. Kepler
    This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
  283. Klemens von Metternich
    This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
  284. Labor aristocracy
    This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
  285. Laissez-faire capitalism
    This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
  286. Lajos Kossuth
    This man was a Hungarian nationalist leader who demanded independence and a constitution
  287. Liberalism (Classical Liberalism)
    This was the political idea in which the government did not intervene in the economy and liberty and equality were stressed
  288. Liberty Leading the People (Delacroix)
    This work of art shows the glory of the French Revolution
  289. Line of Demarcation
    This was the line drawn by Alexander VI that gave Portugal most of Brazil and Spain the rest of South America
  290. Lord Byron
    This English poet joined the Greeks and died fighting so that they may be free
  291. Lorenzo the Magnificent
    This was an artistic patron that spent vast sums on family chapels, frescoes, religious panels and
  292. Louis Blanc
    This man urged people to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully
  293. Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
    This was the first French president as a result of the election after the Revolution of 1848
  294. Louis Pasteur
    This was the man who began studying fermentation to develop a way to avoid spoilage through pasteurization by heating the beverage
  295. Louis XIII
    This French king appointed Cardinal Richelieu
  296. Louis XIV
    This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
  297. Louis XVIII
    This was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile
  298. Luddites
    These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
  299. Ludwig van Beethoven
    This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music
  300. Magellan
    This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world
  301. Malthus (On Population)
    This man said that population would always grow faster than the food supply and the only hope of warding o war, famine, and disease was that young men and women had to limit the growth of population by marrying late
  302. Maria Theresa
    This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
  303. Martin Luther
    This was the most famous and one of the first concrete reformer who began to reject some of the more obscure and selfish laws of the Catholic Church
  304. Mary I
    This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants
  305. Mary Wollstonecraft
    This was an English feminist who supported the women's revolution in France
  306. Masaccio
    He used light and dark imagery to illustrate different feelings and emotions
  307. Meeting at Marburg
    This was the meeting that tried to settle the dispute between Martin Luther and Ulrich
  308. Zwingli
    over the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.
  309. Methodism
    This movement said that all men and women who sought salvation might be saved, giving the people a message of hope
  310. Miasma Theory / Germ Theory
    These were the theories of the spread of disease. The miasma theory said that disease was spread by a bad odor. The new germ theory developed by Louis Pasteur said that diseases were spread by bacteria called germs
  311. Michelangelo
    This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
  312. Middle class values
    The middle class frowned upon heavy drinking and the women were fond of fashion. Education was necessary and sexual purity was considered a virtue
  313. Modern imperialism
    This was the start of the building of foreign empires for trade and military advantages over other states
  314. Modern liberalism
    This was new thought that the governments should be subject to change. This was the counterpart to conservatism
  315. Napoleonic Code
    This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
  316. National Workshops
    This was the group that gave work to the unemployed
  317. Nationalism
    This was the new feeling of pride for one's country after the Napoleonic era
  318. Natural laws
    These were conclusions reached by the philosophes against which debate was impossible
  319. Nepotism
    This was the other common crime in which the members of the church would give positions to relatives
  320. Newton
    This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
  321. Ninety-five Theses
    This was the letter Martin Luther wrote to Archbishop Albert which explained that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance
  322. Northern Humanism
    This humanism philosophy interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism, and humanism in terms of their own traditions
  323. Northwest Passage
    This is the passage that many European explorers attempted but never succeeded to navigate to reach other nations more quickly
  324. Oligarchy
    The rule of a nation or state by a few people
  325. Oliver Cromwell
    This was the dictator who ruled over England after the English civil war. His death provided the military government collapse of England
  326. On Liberty (John Stuart Mill)
    This work advocated economic and moral freedom of individuals from the state. This work is enormously influential to politics today
  327. Paris Reconstruction
    This was planned by Georges Haussmann, who was assigned by Napoleon III, to provide employment, improved living conditions, and to show the glory of the French empire
  328. Partition of Poland
    This was the splitting up of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria
  329. Peace of Augsburg
    This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made
  330. Charles V
    recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following
  331. Peace of Utrecht
    This was the treaty that ended the War of the Spanish Succession
  332. Peace of Westphalia
    This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
  333. Peasants' War
    This was the revolt that occurred in Germany where the peasants rebelled alongside the new Protestant thought. They were viciously quashed and the public appeal to the Reformation went substantially down
  334. Peninsular War
    This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
  335. Peter the Great
    This was the czar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army. He also was interested in building grand cities like those in Western Europe
  336. Peterloo
    This was the extremely lopsided victory by English army over the protestors as a result of the Corn Laws
  337. Petrarch
    The man who began the humanism movement and he believed that he was living the start of new era
  338. Phalansteries
    These were the types of buildings designed by Charles Fourier for a utopian society
  339. Philip II of Spain
    This was the king who started the success of Spain's foreign colonies
  340. Philosophes
    These were the French philosophers
  341. Philosophy of the Enlightenment
    This dealt with skepticism, the government, and the role of reason in everyday life
  342. Physiocrats
    This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
  343. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
    This socialist man believed that property is theft
  344. Pietism
    This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs
  345. Pope Alexander VI
    This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
  346. Pope Leo X
    This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
  347. Pope Paul III
    This was the Pope that called the Council of Trent
  348. Potato Famine
    This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year
  349. Pragmatic Sanction
    This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
  350. Predestination
    One of the main points of Calvinism that said that God had already determined if you were damned or saved
  351. Prince Henry the Navigator
    This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators
  352. Proletariat
    This was the working class in that was constantly battling against the bourgeois factory owners
  353. Protestantism
    This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
  354. Puritan
    This was one of the reforms in England in which the leaders wanted all Catholic elements in the Church of England eliminated
  355. Quadruple Alliance
    This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
  356. Quakers
    A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists and would shake at the power of the word of the Lord
  357. Rabelais
    He was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor and humanist. He is regarded as an avant-garde writer of fantasy and satire
  358. Raft of the Medusa (Géricault)
    This Romantic work shows a crew shipwrecked
  359. Realism
    This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion
  360. Reform Bill of 1832
    This bill gave representation to most people in England
  361. Regulatory Legislation (Factory, Mines & 10 Hours Acts)
    These acts all started to regulate and ameliorate the conditions of work in the factories and helped make the Industrial Revolution better and the living conditions in the urban areas better
  362. Reign of Terror
    • This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
    • Renaissance Popes These were general title given to the popes that would convince the Renaissance artists to work for them in order to enhance the majesty of the churches
  363. Revolutions of 1830 T
    he French Revolution of 1830 occurred because Louis XVIII only granted a small percentage of people the right to vote and Charles X attack of Algeria and as a result, he censored the press and limited the voting rights of the wealthy
  364. Revolutions of 1848
    These revolutions occurred in 1)France, because of the depression and rising unemployment rates caused starvation in France in which they then overthrew the bourgeois monarchy 2)Austria, because the Hungarians rebelled against the Austrian Empire and were joined by the urban poor looking for employment, and 3) Prussia, because the artisans and factory workers joined with the middle-class liberals to rebel against the monarchy and eventually, Prussia became a constitutional monarchy
  365. Ricardo (Iron Law of Wages)
    This man stated that because of population growth, the wages would always sink to subsistence level
  366. Robert Castlereagh
    This British foreign minister was a supporter of Metternich
  367. Robert Koch
    This was the first man to isolate a bacterium and a virus and as a result h could create new vaccines for the disease
  368. Robert Owen
    This man both helped to lead the first national union in England and advocated the use of children in factories
  369. Robespierre
    The main leader of The Mountain and the man who ruled France after the First Revolution
  370. Role of reason
    The Enlightenment thinkers used reason to deduct conclusions about everyday life
  371. Romanovs
    This was the ruling class of Russia after the Cossack Rebellion
  372. Romanticism
    This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion
  373. Roundheads and Cavaliers
    These were the two sides of the English civil war. The Roundheads were the Puritan supporters of the Parliament and the Cavaliers were the supporters of Charles I
  374. Rousseau
    This man's work was extremely influential for the Romantic Movement
  375. Rump Parliament
    This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the Cavaliers
  376. Saint-Simon
    This man was one of the early and influential socialist thinkers who proclaimed the tremendous possibilities of industrial development
  377. Sale of Indulgences
    This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money
  378. Salons
    These were meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens who would talk about different doctrines
  379. Savonarola
    A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence from the paganism and the moral vice of the city
  380. Seditious Meetings Act
    This act made it illegal to meet with a group of more than fifty people
  381. Seven Years' War
    This war was began as a follow-up of the War of Austrian Succession when Prussia invaded Austria
  382. Shakespeare
    This man wrote several plays and poems and is regarded as one of the best writers of all time
  383. Simony
    The common crime of paying for holy offices for the position of power
  384. Spanish Inquisition
    This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
  385. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    This was the massacre that occurred during the wedding of a Catholic and Huguenot that would resolve the conflict between the two conflicting parties
  386. Stadholder
    This was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands
  387. Sturm und Drang
    This was what the early German Romantics called themselves
  388. Surplus Value
    This is the value of the unpaid surplus labor performed by the worker for the capitalist for profit
  389. Tennis Court Oath
    This is the oath that the representatives of the third estate took when they swore that they would never disband until they had proper representation
  390. Test Act of 1673
    This was the bill passed that those who did not receive the Eucharist of the Anglican Church had little rights
  391. The Commonwealth of England
    This was the name that England took on after the civil war and the kingship was abolished
  392. The Courtier
    A treatise that sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman
  393. The Decameron
    A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands
  394. The Prince
    A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests
  395. The Protectorate
    This was the name of the military dictatorship that England took on during the reign of Oliver Cromwell
  396. The Restoration
    This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
  397. The Stuarts
    This was the Scottish royal family that ruled England after Elizabeth I
  398. Theory of Class Struggle
    This was the theory that two opposing classes have always battled against eachother to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
  399. Theory of Evolution
    This theory stated that animals could evolve from other animals in order to adapt to their environments. This theory was not widely accepted for it could possibly account for humans which would defeat the whole purpose of creationism
  400. Thermidorian Reaction and The Directory
    This was the reaction to the despotism after the Second Revolution which led to the establishment of the five-man executive that supported the French military which was not popular with the French people
  401. Thirty Years' War
    This was the international war between the Protestants and Catholics that eventually ended religious conflicts in Europe
  402. Thomas Hobbes
    This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war
  403. Three Estates
    The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land
  404. Titan
    A Venetian man who created the style of mannerism in which artists sometimes distorted figures to express emotion and drama
  405. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
    This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
  406. Treaty of Paris (1763)
    This treaty ended the Seven Years' War
  407. Troppau Conference
    This was the conference at which the Troppau Protocol was signed in which any country that underwent a revolution was no longer part of the European Alliance
  408. Two Treatises on Government (John Locke)
    This was the document that stated that if a ruler steps over its proper function to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property, than that ruler was a tyrant and must be overthrown
  409. Ulrich Zwingli
    This was a man who believed that Christian life rested on the Scriptures and a prominent leader in the Swiss Reformation. He went on to attack indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy
  410. Urban living conditions
    These were awful in the 19th Century as a result of poor sewage treatment, water conditions and bad foundations for buildings
  411. Urban planning and public transit
    This was the act of planning out a city and building it from the blueprints. This caused in increase in public transit that millions of people used a day instead of their own transportation or walking
  412. Utopia
    A work that presents a revolutionary view of society and describes an ideal socialistic community on an island somewhere off the mainland of the New World. He created the name utopia as a good place which is no place
  413. Valois
    This was a German dynasty that often had conflicts with the Habsburgs that often involved other countries and papal troops
  414. Varieties of Socialism
    There were the early French socialists who believed in economic planning and argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job. There was also dialectic socialism in which the followers believed that eventually, the proletariat will battle against the bourgeois to create one single class
  415. Vesalius
    This was the scientist who began to study anatomy in depth. He is referred as the father of anatomy
  416. Vespucci
    This was the man who first said that the Americas were completely separate from Asia, thus the continent was named after him
  417. Victor Hugo
    This was a Romantic writer who wrote prose and poetry
  418. Voltaire
    This was a playwright and a philosophe who said that the best that one could hope for in a government is a good monarch and he even often criticized the Catholic Church and government in his plays
  419. Walter Scott
    This Scottish Romantic poet used history to write his poems
  420. Wanderer in the Clouds (Friedrich)
    This work of art shows the insignificance of the human and the supremacy of nature
  421. War of Austrian Succession
    This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state
  422. War of Spanish Succession
    This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
  423. War of the Three Henrys
    This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)
  424. Wealth of Nations
    This work criticized mercantilism by saying that it meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state-approved monopolies and government favorites
  425. Whigs and Tories
    These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was
  426. William and Mary
    These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament
  427. William Wordsworth
    Leader of English Romanticism who published works in the countryside
  428. Women's March on Versailles
    This was the march by the women of Paris to the home of Marie Antoinette in order to demand action for the ridiculous raise in the price of bread
  429. Working class leisure
    The working class still enjoyed drinking, although it was discouraged, they started to enjoy sports and music halls, although blood sports declined
  430. Wycliffe
    This was one o the original men to challenge the church. His writings became "scriptures" for other reformers to follow.
  431. Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
    France's first elected president by universal male suffrage, and developed strong nationalism like his cousin
  432. Giuseppe Mazzini
    a radical idealistic patriot who wanted a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and will of the people in Italy
  433. Vincenzo Gioberti
    A catholic priest who called for a federation of existing states under the presidency of a progressive pope in Italy
  434. Victor Emmanuel
    Sardinia's monarch who helped unite Italy
  435. Pius IX
    Pope who denounced unification and published the Syllabus of Errors
  436. Camillo di Cavour
    The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state
  437. Giuseppe Garibaldi
    A "super patriot" of Italy, he helped unify southern Italy with the help of his Red Shirts
  438. Frederick William IV
    A king and leader of Prussia who was unable to unify Germany "from above," he was replaced by William I
  439. William I
    The Leader of Prussia who wanted military expansion, and hired Bismarck to further his goals
  440. Otto von Bismarck
    German Political mastermind who spearheaded Prussian expansion
  441. Alexander II
    A Russian Tsar who implemented rapid social change and general modernization of Russia.
  442. Alexander III
    A determined reactionary Tsar who nevertheless sped forward with economic modernization
  443. Sergei Witte
    A tough finance minister who thought that Russia's industrial backwardness was threatening Russia's power and greatness
  444. Nicholas II
    Russia's last tsar, he witnessed the fall of Russia from great power, to the entering into WWI and total collapse
  445. William II
    This new German emperor opposed Bismarck, fired him, and ended up being less successful than Bismarck anyway
  446. Adolphe Thiers
    Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least"
  447. Leon Gambetta
    A successful politician in France, he was a moderate republican who helped stabilize government
  448. Alfred Dreyfus
    A Jewish military captain in the French Army, he was falsely accused of treason, and his affair split France apart
  449. Benjamin Disraeli
    A British politician who extended the vote to the rich middle class in order to broaden the political base of the conservative party
  450. David Lloyd George
    Member of the Liberal party in Great Britain who helped raise taxes on the rich, and reform in general
  451. William Gladstone
    A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance
  452. Karl Lueger
    The fiery mayor of Vienna who preached anti-Semitism and appealed to lower middle class
  453. Theodor Herzl
    German Jewish Politician who advocated the policy of Zionism and the creation of a nation state for all Jewish people.
  454. Edward Bernstein
    A revisionist social who advocated the gradual gain of socialism and looked towards Darwin's doctrines as a measure for a change in socialism's tactics
  455. Jean Jaures
    French revisionist socialist who repudiated revisionist doctrines to achieve a unified socialist state
  456. Modernization
    An occurrence in Russia that lead to the increase of its stature in world power standings and revitalized the economy and industry
  457. Louis Napoleon's rise & ideas on gov't
    He thought that the Government should be powerful and that there should be strong nationalism, but mainly guided by the people's interests
  458. Reasons for and against Italian unity
    People wanted Italian unity because it would unify Italy, and they wanted a different government. People did not want unification because it went against the church, there were very different areas in the north and the south, and because they wanted to just keep things the same
  459. Syllabus of Errors
    A document by the pope in which he denounced rationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.
  460. Cavour's program
    Cavour's plan was to first modernize the econ, and model it off of Britain, then modernize the military, with lots of railroads to move the troops around to country
  461. Austro-Sardinian War
    Austria invades Italy and the French come in to help the Italians. The Italians and the French are very successful and gain Lombardy.
  462. 1859 Garibaldi's invasion
    An energized movement of radicals from Sicily to the mainland and gaining land for unification
  463. Reasons for and against German unity
    Upper class and Conservatives did not want unification because they would have less power, but the rest of the people wanted it because of nationalism and German identity
  464. Zollverein
    • A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members
    • Bismarck's plans and maneuvers He wanted to unify Germany, but played it safe, with many alliances and pacts, and ends up being amazing
  465. "Blood and Iron"
    Bismarck's idea of always preparing and waging war, and those things can only be done with war
  466. Schleswig-Holstein
    crisis A desire for success abroad lead to this. It was a short war against Denmark to gain these providences
  467. Austro-Prussian War -
    Causes & Outcomes The Germans needed a way to make the Austrians on their side, and they had the superior army. The Germans won, and were able to make sure that Austria stayed out of German affairs
  468. North German Confederation Constitution
    This stated that local government had some power, but that ultimate power rested in the hands of Bismarck and William
  469. Franco-Prussian War
    - Causes & Outcomes The reason behind the war was because a war would bring the Southern German states into the Prussian state, and the French wanted to teach Germany a lesson. It ended up that the Germans kicked butt, and the French were humiliated, and the German plan worked completely
  470. Ems Telegram
    A telegram which the French gave to the Germans in anger over the Succession of the Throne in Spain, but the Germans altered it to look like the French were rude and evil. The French declared war.
  471. Crimean War -
    impact in Britain & Russia This war showed that the Russian were way behind the rest of the world, and needed reform.
  472. Russian Modernization
    The most of these were economical and not political, and even then were mostly only halfway efforts
  473. Witte's reforms
    He "used the west to catch up to the west" in Russia, by having foreigners build factories and making new transport lines.
  474. Zemstvo
    A local coulcil of politicians to deal with local problems in Russia
  475. Trans-Siberian
    Railroad A railroad that went across Siberia
  476. Russo-Japanese War -
    impact in Russia This war showed that Russia was still not strong, and it caused revolution back at home.
  477. "Bloody Sunday" (1905)
    - Causes, actions, effects The cause was people wanted to present a petition to the Tsar, the action was people getting shot, the effect was people disliking the Tsar and turning on him
  478. October Manifesto
    This granted full civil rights to people and opened up the Duma
  479. Duma
    This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power
  480. Decline of Ottoman Empire
    They fell behind in industrialization, in education, and in general compared to the west
  481. Tanzimat
    This was a short ottoman parliament designed to model the western model of an empire
  482. Young Turks
    Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform
  483. Structure of German government
    They had a strong top government and they had a Reichstag, or the lower house of parliament
  484. Kulturkampf
    Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church
  485. German social legislation
    Bismarck placed high tariffs on imported goods, and tried to stop socialism with government measures that banned the socialist party
  486. Paris Commune
    The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
  487. French educational reforms
    The Dreyfus affair lead to the separation of church and state, and lead to more people in government backed schools that were no longer catholic schools but republican schools.
  488. Dreyfus Affair
    Incident in France where a Jewish captain was tried for treason because they military was anti-Semitic, and it divided the country
  489. Extension of suffrage in Britain
    suffrage was extended to more middle class men in Britain so that they conservatives would get a stronger base
  490. Liberal v. Conservative
    Parties in Britain The conservative party in Britain was put down when the king threatened to make more liberal seats to pass bills that the conservatives were vetoing
  491. People's Budget
    A plan in British parliament that increased spending on social services
  492. Irish Home Rule
    A desire of some people in Ireland to not be ruled by England
  493. Dual Monarchy
    The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns
  494. Magyar policies
    The Magyar pushed through bills that changed voting laws to help the elite and to force through the teaching of Hungarian in schools. They created the nationalism that would tear them apart
  495. Anti-Semitism
    A mindset that people of Jewish heritage were inferior to other races
  496. Zionism
    A movement to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine
  497. Socialists and Nationalism
    The socialist opposed nationalism and thought that the German worker had more in common with the French worker than the German boss
  498. Second International
    A group of socialist national parties that met and discussed Marx, and planned action
  499. Revisionism
    The socialist idea that we should embrace socialism in a gradual advance, with no bloody war
  500. Muhammad Ali
    Egyptian army general who stepped into power after the French left. He reformed the army, the land, and the communication of Egypt
  501. Ismail Ali
    Khedive of Egypt, he was a westernizing autocrat and grandson of the first leader
  502. Leopold II
    Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.
  503. Matthew Perry
    This American naval officer was the driving factor in Japan's opening by using gunboat diplomacy
  504. Dowager Empress Tzu Hsi
    • Chinese leader who used conservative forces to maintain her power
    • John A. Hobson
    • This man wrote Imperialism, a critique of imperalism
  505. Cecil Rhodes
    British military commander who believed in expansion and founded the De Beers Mining Company
  506. Joseph Conrad
    This man wrote Heart of Darkness, where he criticized the Europeans in their civilizing
  507. Henry Labouchière
    A member of British Parliament who mocked Rudyard Kipling's poem
  508. Robert Clive
    This man was a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown.
  509. Warren Hastings
    This man was the first governor of British Bengal
  510. Ranjit Singh
    This man was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire in India
  511. Rudyard Kipling
    British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism
  512. Sun Yatsen
    This man was a radical Chinese reformer who sought to overthrow the government
  513. Income inequality / Standard of Living
    There was an large inequality of income and standard of living between Europe and the non-industrialized world because industrialization itself opened the gap
  514. World Markets / European foreign investment
    Europe mainly invested most of its money back into Europe, and then into the US
  515. Isolation & "Opening" of China and Japan
    Isolation to protect against the corruptive west, and a forced opening for reasons of trace
  516. British Opium Trade / Opium Wars
    The British had a war with the Chinese to make sure they could sell their opium to china
  517. Treaty of Nanking
    A treaty with Britain and China that gave Hong Kong to Britain and opened 4 cities for trade
  518. 1842 Western penetration of Egypt
    This was when the French left, and the British moved in and invaded and captured Egypt
  519. Khedive
    This was the equivalent of a king in Egypt
  520. Suez Canal
    An important canal to the British in Egypt
  521. Egyptian Nationalist Party
    A political party in Egypt that was formed under Ahmed Arabi
  522. Migration:
    Who went where, and why? (demographics) 1/3 of European migrants came from British Isles; less that ½ went to the US; most often a small peasant landowner/village craftsman; left because they were threatened by industrialization; many returned to their homelands
  523. Swallows / Repatriation
    These were people who migrated to new lands, but then came back to either farm, or to stay
  524. Great White Walls
    This was a policy of discriminatory laws designed to keep Asians out of countries
  525. Scramble for Africa
    This was an event where Europe tried to claim Africa as quickly as it could
  526. Boers / Afrikaners
    These were Dutch settlers in south Africa
  527. Congo exploitation
    This event was where king Leopold of Belgium exploited Congo for his personal gain
  528. Berlin Conference of 1884-5
    This event happened to set laws for colonization and claiming land in Africa
  529. "Effective Occupation"
    This was the idea of occupying land so that a country could claim it
  530. Fashoda Crisis of 1898
    This event occurred when both Britain and France wanted the town of Fashoda; in the end, the British gained control of the town, because the French gave up
  531. Omdurman
    A battle between Muslim warriors and British machine gunners, a bloody massacre
  532. "New Imperialism"
    • The new idea that revitalized the period of expansion and gathering of colonies
    • Justifications for Imperialism People justified imperialism by the concept of "white man's burden," which stated that European should govern other because it was right and better for the people
  533. Social Darwinism
    The twisted social idea that used the theory of evolution and applied to people
  534. "The White Man's Burden"
    The justification of imperialism, this was created in Kipling's work
  535. Responses to Imperialism:
    Traditionalist v. Modernist Some people thought that we should accept and learn from the people who were taking over our land, these being the modernists; and other thought that we should completely try to get rid of them, these people being the traditionalists
  536. Founding of the British empire in India
    Britain gained this territory by slowly asserting influence and putting people in charge
  537. Great Rebellion (Indian Mutiny)
    This was a insurrection of Muslim and Hindi army officers that spread through northern India before it was crushed. It was because of people trying to send out the white army officers
  538. Meiji Restoration of 1867
    This was a replacement of the Japanese government with the emperor, done so by samurai
  539. Japanese "opening" of Korea
    The Japanese had a war with China and ended up gaining Korea, which they opened to trade; Japan became an imperialist power
  540. Sino-Japanese War
    A war between China and Japan for influence, power, and territory
  541. Russo-Japanese War
    A war between Russia and Japan for Port Arthur, and for more influence in CHina
  542. Qing Dynasty
    The two hundred year old Chinese dynast that was the last emperors of China
  543. Boxer Rebellion
    A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese people who wanted to throw the foreigners out
  544. China's Hundred Days of Reform
    A period of reform for china in the attempt to meet the foreign challenge
  545. Open Door Policy
    A policy in which US made formal annexation of China
  546. Lawrence of Arabia
    British military officer who incited the Arabs in Arabia to revolt against their Turkish lords
  547. Georges Clemenceau
    An effective and almost dictator-like leader of France, who would not take defeat as an answer
  548. Nicholas II
    Last Tsar of Russia, he involved the Russians in WWI
  549. Theobald von Bethman-Hollweg
    German chancellor who hoped for WWI to happen, but without Britain
  550. Wilhelm II
    Mustafa Kemal the so called "father of the Turks," he founded what is now known as Turkey and defended against British attack
  551. Alfred von Schlieffen
    German who concocted the plan of "France for breakfast, Russia for dinner"
  552. Franz Joseph
    The old leader of Austria in the years before WWI
  553. Gravrilo Princip
    A Serbian nationalist in the Black hand who killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  554. Walther Rathenau
    was a German industrialist, politician, writer, and statesman who served as Foreign Minister of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
  555. Paul von Hindenburg
    This German, along with his partner Ludendorff, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war
  556. Erich Ludendorff
    This German, along with his partner Hindenburg, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war
  557. Erich von Falkenhayn
    He was chief of the general staff during WWI for the Germans
  558. Henri Pétain
    French military leader who assumed control of France and lead it out of the war successfully
  559. Douglas Haig
    was a British soldier and senior commander (field marshal) during World War I. He commanded the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) from 1915 to the end of the War. Most notably he was commander during the Battle of the Somme, the 3rd Battle of Ypres and the series of victories leading to the German surrender in 1918.
  560. Robert Nievelle
    He took command of one of the main French armies engaged in the Battle of Verdun, leading it during its successful counter-strokes against the Germans, but was accused of wasting French lives during some of his attacks. He became Commander-in-Chief of the French armies on the Western Front in December 1916, and was criticised in that capacity for not exploiting good opportunities to attack the Germans. He was responsible for the Nivelle Offensive, which faced a very large degree of opposition during its planning stage. When the offensive failed to achieve a breakthrough on the Western Front, Nivelle was replaced as Commander-in-Chief in May 1917.
  561. Woodrow Wilson
    American president at the time of WWI who came up with 14 points
  562. Rosa Luxembourg
    German socialist revolutionary who was assassinated after the war
  563. Serbian nationalist movement
    This was a movement to create a Serbian state and break from Austria Hungary
  564. First, Second, Third Balkan War
    • All of these were wars for nationalistic purposes, the third creating WWI
    • Pan-Slavism A movement to create a nation state of Slavic people
  565. Alliances 1873-1914 & German isolation
    Germany became more and more isolated because it was aggressive and France had pursued many alliances against Germany, leaving Germany only with Austria
  566. Moroccan Crisis & Algeciras Conference 1906
    This event showed that Germany was war hungry and turned the British onto the side of the French
  567. Development of Anglo-German rivalry & Naval arms race
    This rivalry developed because of the increasing naval race, and because Germany was becoming increasingly militaristic
  568. Triple Entente & Triple Alliance
    • The triple Entente was an alliance between France, Britain and Russia, the
    • Triple alliance was an alliance between Germany, Austria and Russia
  569. Revanchisme
    • The French idea of revenge for what Germany did in the Franco-Prussian war
    • the Schlieffen Plan The plan that Germany would attack France quickly and then move towards Russia
  570. Why war was seen as a good thing in 1914
    War was seen as a good thing because it would cover up all of the problems that every country involved had going on at home
  571. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand --
    the Black Hand the serbs assassinated the archduke to make a statement, and the Austrians got really pissed, because he was the next in line for the throne and the guy on the throne then was old
  572. Austrian "anti-nationalism"
    The Austrians tried to stop the nationalism of different people in their country from tearing them apart, but it did not work
  573. July Diplomacy –
    the Blank Check This was given to Austria form Germany that guaranteed full military backing in any war
  574. Why war preparations were "unstoppable"
    War preparations were unstoppable because once you started to prepare, you knew that your enemies were doing the same, and you could not stop, because if you did, your enemies could attack you
  575. Progress of the War WWI
    progressed so the Germans were winning at first, and then the Americans came and kicked butt. It also was so pointless and full of death
  576. Importance of Germany's campaign through Belgium
    When Germany moved through Belgium, it caused Britain to go on the side of the war with France.
  577. Why the Western Front became stalemated
    The western front became stalemated because it was full of trench warfare and needless death
  578. Innovations in weaponry
    zeppelins, airplanes, gas, machine guns, tanks these things were new ideas that really did not work very well
  579. Lusitania and Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
    This ship was sunk with Americans on it, and this action by the Germans was what ultimately caused the Americans to enter the war
  580. "total war" & measures to prosecute it
    This was the effort to completely involve every person and aspect of the economy into the war
  581. Problems of trench life
    the trench was dirty, wet, smelly, and full of death, and you waited to die at any moment
  582. Battles of the Marne
    This battle was a French/British victory, because they stopped the German offensive
  583. Battle of Tannenberg
    This battle was a German victory against the Russian, the Russians were crushed
  584. Battle of Verdun
    one of the costliest battles in WWI, was mainly useless and just people died
  585. Battle of the Somme
    Failed allied offensive that resulted in a lot of loss of life
  586. Gallipoli
    A failed British offensive in Ottoman empire
  587. Passchendaele
    a COMPLETELY worthless battle that resulted in millions dead
  588. Nievelle's Offensive
    French offensive that resulted in an almost mutiny by the French military
  589. German 1918 Offensive
    A last ditch attempt to beat the allies after the Germans defeated the Russians
  590. Strains of the war on the Great Powers
    The strains lead to millions of people dead, and many revolutions and restructuring
  591. Costs of the war --
    • monetary & human the war lost 15 million lives and cost 196 billion in today's money
    • The "Big Four" The big 4 were US, Britain, France and Italy
  592. Fourteen Points
    • These were part of Wilson's plan to end conflict
    • reparations Germany had to pay billions of dollars in war reperations
    • national self-determination The idea that people should determine who and what they want leading them
  593. Treaty of Versailles t
    erms These terms said that Germany had to pay money, that Germany had to give up land, and that Germany had to keep its army size down