General Psychology

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General Psychology
2010-03-08 03:19:12

A study guide and list of terms for Hockenbury and Hockenbury's text book, "Discovering Psychology."
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  1. Behavior
    observable actions of a person or animal
  2. Mind
    thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences
  3. Science
    an objective way to answer questions based on observable facts/data and well-described methods
  4. In thinking about psychology and consciousness, the idea that the mind and the body are separate entities that interact makes a lot of sense to you. This view that you hold is most like the view of:
    Interactive dualism proposed by Rene Descartes.
  5. Interactive dualism is the idea that:
    mind and body are seperate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions, and other concious experiences.
  6. Psychology is formally defined as:
    the science of behavior and mental processes.
  7. Wilhelm Wundt investigated which of the following phenomena?
    Wundt used scientific methods to study fumdamental psychological processes, such as mental reaction times in response to visual or auditory stimuli.
  8. Which of the following was the first “school” of thought or approach in psychology?
    Edward B. Titchener's structuralism.
  9. As a subject in an experiment, you are told to look at a coffee mug carefully and then report all of your sensations and feelings about the coffee mug after viewing it. What psychological technique have you been told to use?
  10. Who was the first woman to be elected president of the American Psychological Association?
    Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)
  11. The early school of psychology called behaviorism:
    emphasized the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning.
  12. Two key figures in the development of humanistic psychology include:
    Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  13. What is social loafing?
    When people exert more effort on a task working alone than working as part of a group.
  14. Psychologists who take the evolutionary perspective:
    analyze behavior in terms of how it increases a species' chances to survive and reproduce.
  15. Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to:
    use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures.
  16. Cognitive psychology focuses on the study of:
    mental processes, including reasoning and thinking, problem soving, memory, perception, mental imagery, and language.
  17. Ethical standards for animal research in psychology:
    The APA condones the use of animals in psychological research, but only under certain conditions. First, research using animal subjects must have an acceptable scientific purpose. Second, there must be a reasonable expectation that the research will increase knowledge about behavior, increase understanding of the species under study or produce results that will benefit the health or welfare of humans or other animals.
  18. Experiments can provide important information, but they also have limitations. Which of the following is one of the limitations discussed in your text?
    • A) The results cannot be applied to real situations or to a more general population beyond the participants in the study.
    • B) It may be unethical to do the research.
  19. Biological psychology (also called biopsychology or psychobiology)
    the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental processes.
  20. Glial cells
    support neurons by providing structural support and nutrition, removing cell wastes, and enhancing the communication between neurons.
  21. Neurons are:
    Highly specialized cells that communicate information in electrical and chemical form.
  22. The three basic types of neurons are:
    Sensory neurons, Motor neurons, and Interneurons.
  23. The type of specialized cell whose main function is to communicate between neurons is a(n):
  24. The cell body of a neuron:
    processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contans the cells nucleus; also called the soma.
  25. Which part of the neuron receives messages from other neurons?
  26. The primary function of the myelin sheath is to:
    Insulate the axons, enabling faster communication between neurons.
  27. The action potential is best defined as:
    A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
  28. An action potential occurs when:
    The action potential is produced by the movement of electrically charged particles, called ions, across the membrane of the axon.
  29. Like a key in a lock, the shape of the________must fit the _________to affect the postsynaptic neuron.
    Neurotransmitter / Receptor site
  30. Acetylcholine
    Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contraction and is involved in memory function.
  31. Dopamine
    Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations.
  32. Serotonin
    Neurotransmitter involved in sleep and emotions.
  33. Norepinephrine
    Neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory; also a hormone manufactured by adrenal glands.
  34. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
    Neurotransmitter that usually communicates an inhibitory message.
  35. Endorphins
    Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions.
  36. Too little dopamine in the brain is associated with symptoms of:
    rigidity, muscle tremors, poor balance, and difficulty in initiating movements. Ex: Parkinson's disease.
  37. The peripheral nervous system is made up of:
    all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system. It is comprised of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
  38. The autonomic nervous system is composed of two different branches called the ____ and _____ nervous systems.
    Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
  39. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  40. Peripheral nervous system
    Division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system.
  41. Somatic nervous system
    Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central nervous system and carries motor messages from the central nervous system to the muscles.
  42. Autonomic nervous system
    Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions.
  43. Sympathetic nervous system
    Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.
  44. Parasympathetic nervous system
    Branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the body's phsical resources.
  45. Endocrine system
    System of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  46. Pituitary gland
    Endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes hormones that affect the functions of other glands as well as hormones that set directly on physical processes.
  47. Adrenal glands
    Pair of endocrine glands that are involved in the human stress response.
  48. Adrenal cortex
    The outer portion of the adrenal glands.
  49. Adrenal medulla
    The inner portion of the adrenal glands; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  50. Gonads
    the endocrine glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes.
  51. Phrenology refers to:
    a discredited pseudoscientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral character, and intelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull.
  52. The human brain first begins developing at about:
    three weeks after conception.
  53. The right side of the brain controls movements on the left side of the body, such as the ability to kick your left leg. Where do the outgoing motor messages cross over?
    the hindbrain level.
  54. The limbic system refers to:
    A group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory.
  55. Which brain structure exerts considerable influence over the secretion of hormones throughout the body?
    The substantia nigra.
  56. A German neurologist named ________ identified an area on the left temporal lobe that when damaged, disrupted the ability to understand written or spoken language.
    Karl Wernicke
  57. Functional plasticity:
    The brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
  58. In psychology the term sensation formally refers to:
    The process of detecting a physical stimulus, such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.
  59. The process by which physical energy, such as light, is converted into a coded neural signal that can be transmitted to and interpreted by the brain is called:
  60. The smallest possible stimulus that can be detected half the time, or the minimum level of stimuli that we can detect is called:
    Absolute threshold
  61. The smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected is called the:
    Difference threshold
  62. John puts one toe into the swimming pool and shivers because the water is so cold. He grits his teeth and dives in anyway. After about ten minutes, the temperature of the water seems quite comfortable to him. This example illustrates the principle of:
    Sensory adaptation
  63. As you walk into a brightly lit room, the black structure in the center of your eye seems to shrink to a tiny black dot. This response is caused by the action of the eye structure called the:
  64. What causes nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism?
    Abnormalities in the shape of an eyeball force incoming light on the retina to be focused improperly by the lens.
  65. Rods are used for vision in _______ light, and cones are used for vision in _____ light.
    dim / bright
  66. Identify the sequence that correctly represents the path taken by light signals through the eye.
    Light waves pass through the cornea, pupil, and lens. The iris controls the amount of light coming in. The light strikes the retina, which activates the rods and cones. From there, the information is transfered to the optic nerve, which in turn, transmits it to the brain.
  67. The blind spot is caused by:
    The optic disk. It is a point in our eye that has no photoreceptors.
  68. Loudness is determined by the:
    Intensity (or amplitude) of a sound wave, measured in decibels.
  69. The stimuli that produce the sensation of an odor are:
    molecules in the air.
  70. Pheromones are:
    Chemical signals released by an animal that communicate information and affact the behavior of other animals of the same species.
  71. Gestalt psychology:
    A school psychology founded in Germany in the early 1900's that maintained that our sensations are actively processed according to consistent perceptual rules that result in meaningful whole perceptions, or gestalts.
  72. According to one important perceptual principle, when we look at a scene we automatically tend to separate the elements of that scene into an object and its background. This principle is called:
    Figure-ground relationship.
  73. The scientific study of paranormal phenomena and ESP is called: