Path test 1

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SMB007
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95917
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Path test 1
Updated:
2011-08-02 15:32:51
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Path test UWS rouhani
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test 1
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  1. PSA
    prostate specific antigen (prostate carcinoma)
  2. a-fetoprotien
    Heptaocellular carcinoma
  3. Alkaline phosphatase
    metastatese to bone, biliary disease, paget's disease
  4. Viral Carcinogens - 3 ways to implement
    • 1. Integration of DNA
    • 2. Transduction - acute RNA
    • 3. Insertion - Slow transform RNA
  5. Transformation of Proto-oncogenese -> Oncogene
    • 1. Point mutation
    • 2. Gene amplification
    • 3. Chromosomal rearrangement
    • 4. Insertion of viral oncogene
  6. Chemical carcinogens
    • - Absorbed as a procarcinogen (inactivated)
    • - act in order
    • 1. Initiation
    • 2. Promotion
    • 3. Conversion
    • 4. Progression
    • 5. Clonal expansion
  7. Oncogenes and associated Tumor
    c-myc - Burkitt's lymphoma

    ret - multiple endocrine neoplasia
  8. Tumor suppressor genes
    p53 - breast and colon cancer

    Rb-1 - retinoblastoma

    D_C - deleted in _ cancer (DPC = pancreatic cancer, DCC = colon cancer)
  9. Psammoma Bodies
    Calcification of tumor thrombi and Papillar tips
  10. hemoptysis
    hemorage respiratory tract
  11. epistaxis
    nose bleed
  12. hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  13. hematuria
    blood in urine
  14. hematochezia
    anorectal bleeding
  15. melena
    black blood in stool (upper GI)
  16. metrorrhagia
    bleeding not related to norma menses
  17. menorrhagia
    profound menstral bleeding
  18. skin hemmorage
    petechia, purpura, ecchymosis(bruising)
  19. Edema factors
    • 1.increase hydrostatic pressure (hypertension, heart failure, kidney disease)
    • 2. inc. wall permeability (inflamatory)
    • 3. decre. oncotic pressure
    • 4. lymphatic obstruction
  20. cardiogenic shock
    pump failure of heart
  21. hypovolemic shock
    fluid loss from circulation
  22. hypotensive shock
    peripheral vascular tone loss
  23. Clinical stages of shock:
    1. Early
    • tachycardia
    • vasoconstriction of arterioles
    • reduced urine production
  24. Clinical stages of shock:
    decompensated but reversible
    • hypotension
    • tachypnena and dyspnea
    • ooliguria
    • metabolic acidosis
  25. Clinical stages of shock:
    Ireversible shock
    • circulatory collapse
    • marked hypperfusion of vital organs
    • loss of vital functions
    • death
  26. Human oncogenes
    gene when mutated or expressed at high levels turn a normal cell into a tumor cell

    proto-oncogene is a normal gene that can -> oncogene due to mutations or increased expression
  27. complement system fxns
    • 1. opsonization - phagocytosis
    • 2. anaphylaxis - histamine release
    • 3. chemotaxis - migration of leukocytes
    • 4. cell lysis - mac
  28. Arachodonic acid
    - lipoxygenase
    • leukotriene - vascular permeability
    • lipoxin - vasodilation
  29. arachidonic acid
    cyclooxygenase
    • prostaglandin - smooth msl contraction
    • prostacyclin - opposes thromboxane
    • thromboxane - platelet aggregation

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