Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Polyarteritis nodosa?
Patients with polyarteritis nodosa typically present with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgia, and weight loss that develop over days to months. Two thirds of these patients have mononeuritis multiplex, and one third have hypertension, testicular pain, and cutaneous involvement including nodules, ulcers, purpura, and livedo reticularis.The kidneys, peripheral nerves, and heart also are commonly affected. Aneurysm formation is common, especially in the mesenteric vessels. Ischemia, not glomerulonephritis, causes renal disease in patients with this condition.Patients with polyarteritis nodosa usually have anemia, leukocytosis, and an elevated ESR. ANCA assays are almost always negative, particularly in patients with concomitant hepatitis B virus infection. In patients with a compatible clinical presentation, biopsy is generally taken from the skin or a sural nerve. Radiographic imaging of the mesenteric or renal arteries can also be used to establish a definitive diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa. Characteristic findings of this condition include aneurysms and stenoses of the medium-sized vessels.