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Cartographers are mapmakers. They use high-tech computer, photography, satellite imagery, and graphic art techniques, dozens of breathtaking maps are created by cartographers each year.
As you read and study about maps and how they are usd, consider how much time and effort goes into each map you analyze.
The Earth is shaped like a sphere; therefore, the only truly accurate model of the Earth is the round globe.
The create maps, cartographers project the image of the round Earth onto a flat surface.
All map projections or images show some distortion in the size, shape, distances, or areas on the surface of the Earth
Maps are prepared for many uses and include important tools to help you interpret important information.
Geographers study Earth's physical and human characteristics. Absolute and relative locations are used as reference points for places on Earth.
Geographers identify formal, functional and perceptual regions. Geographers use skills such as direct observation, mapping, interviewing, statistics and technology in their studies of the Earth.
Important elements or parts of the map
- compass rose - gives direction on map
- scale - often shown as a bar and gives te map's size in relationship to actual land distances
- global grid - used to pinpoint exact locations on the map
Geographers use graphs, charts, and daigrams to interpret information related to the study of the world.
- Charts & tables - show facts arranged in columns and rows.
- Pictographs and bar graphs - used to show comparisons.
- line graphs - used to show change in something.
- circle or pie graphs - use percentages to show how parts of a whole compare
- Diagrams - drawings that explain something or show how something is done.
The Earth is located in a solar system
Earth's surface is complated of 3 layers, the crust, the mantle, the core
The surface forces of weathering and erosion greatly affect the surface features of the Earth. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River is an example of surface erosion
Internal forces are at work to change the shape of Earth's surface
The land surface of Earth is a mixture of natural features known as landforms and water forms.
70 of Earth's surface is made up of water, which circulates in a constant water cycle.
Earth has both renewable and non-renewable natural resources.
- a renewable resource might be plant life.
- a non-renewable resource might be fossil fuels.
other factors that affect the Earth's climate
- wind patterns
- ocean currents
Cultures express themselves in different ways, such as religion, traditions, and art.
Cultures rarely remain in isolation; cultures mix when people migrate from place to place.
People emigrate because of wars, food shortages, persecution, lack of jobs, or other problems.
Language is a very important aspect of culture, because language is the means by which cultural traditions are transmitted to the next generation.
To help geographers describe people and cultures, they divide the world into specific culture regions.
The development of subsistence agriculture led to a new kind of culture based on settled village living
Subsistence agriculture depends heavily on human labor and traditional tools to produce food.
Commercial agriculture involves using larger farms and machinery to produce cash crops to be sold at markets
Countries that produce great quantities of goods and services and employ most of the workers in industry are called developed countries.
Developing countries are usually more rural agricultural nations where people make their living in traditional agriculture or in small industries.
Canada and the US make up most of the continent of North America
The rock formations of the Canadian Shield are two to four billion years old, some of the world's oldest exposed rock.
Climate regions shared between the Canada and US. Most climate types, desert to tundra can be found.
People in the US and Canada have developed and commercialized many of the natural vegetation types found here.