Reproduction

Card Set Information

Author:
crimsonblaze
ID:
96133
Filename:
Reproduction
Updated:
2011-08-04 07:14:16
Tags:
reproduction
Folders:

Description:
reproduction
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user crimsonblaze on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. During ........................... a large cell is mitotically cut into many smaller cells w/o growth of cytoplasm between cells
    Cleavage
  2. Protosome show a ................................pattern. Their plane of symmetry is ................................... to the verticle axis of the embryo
    • Spiral cleavage pattern
    • diagonal
  3. Deuterostomes have a .......................... pattern. their plane of division is ............../................. to vertical axis of the embryo
    • radial cleave pattern
    • parallel or perpendicular
  4. Protostomes have a ................ type of development. This means the "future" of embryonic cells is determined .............. on.
    • determinant
    • early
  5. Deuterostomes have an .................... type of development. This means the "future" of embryonic cells is determined .................. on. The developmental instructions arise gradually
    • intermediate
    • later (the cell fate is not "determined early on)
  6. During .................. the cells migrate from the surface inward to form a cavity, the ......................, that opens to the outside through the ...................
    • gastrulation
    • archenteron
    • blastopore
  7. During Gastrulation , ................ germ layers form and you can begin to see the formation of the basic animal body plan, a ...............................
    • 3
    • tube within a tube
  8. The ............................is the structure that will establish bilateral symmetry, determine the site of gastrulation and initiate germ layer formation in some groups such as chickens and humans (reptiles too)
    primitive streak
  9. The blastopore in protostomes will eventually become the..................
    mouth (proto = first, stoma = mouth)
  10. The blastopore in deuterostomes will eventually become the ..................
    anus
  11. .............................. occurs during gastrulation. In protostomes, solid masses of ............................ split into two to form the coelom. In Deuterostomes, an outpocket of ........... forms the coelom.
    • Coelom formation
    • mesodermal cells
    • archenteron ( coelom are where the mesodermal cells are!!)
  12. ...................retain the developing embryo so the amount of ............... within the mammalian egg is smaller than ....................... organisms
    • Placental mammals
    • cytoplasm
    • non placental
  13. prior to meiosis, DNA replication occurs. The cells are known as ...............................
    primary spermatocytes
  14. Gametogenesis
    haploid or diploid cell going thru cell division to form mature haploid gametes
  15. Primary Spermatocyte
    2N, 4C ( 4x DNA of 1C gamete)
  16. Secondary Spermatocyte
    1N, 2C formed after meiosis I
  17. Four Spermatids
    • 1N, 1C formed after meiosis II
    • must undergo maturation before becoming viable sperm
  18. Site of spermatogenic cells where spermatogenesis occurs
    seminiferous tubules
  19. spermatogenic cells
    outer cells least developed and as it matures, pushed into lumen (cavity) of tubule
  20. immature sperm that lack flagellum. Found in the lumen of seminiferous tubules
    spermatid
  21. immature sperm with flagellum that still need additional maturation
    spermatozoa
  22. small clumps of cells between the seminiferous tubules that produce testosterone
    interstitial/ Leydig cells
  23. coiled tube on surface of testies where sperm maturation occurs
    Epididymis
  24. duct that is the distal extension of the epididymis
    vas deferens
  25. Genes from one parent (mitosis) is ................ reproduction
    asexual
  26. fusion of 1N gametes inolves genes from two parents (meiosis and then fertilzation) in ...............reproduction
    sexual
  27. Asexual reproduction: Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Advantage: no mate needed, quicker generation time, successful genotypes maintained (stable environment)
    • Disadvantage: lack genetic diversity
    • allows for more rapid exponential growth
  28. Sexual reproduction: Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Advantages: genetic diversity (changing environment)
    • Disadvantages: mate selection/ timing, high # gametes required, each only give 50%
  29. Gametes develop without fertilization in ......... (sorta sexual, sorta asexual). An example is the ................... where males have ............ and females have ........ gametes. This is also in some ................ (some fishes, lizards, amphibians)
    • paththenogenesis
    • honey bee
    • 1N
    • 2N
    • Vertebrates
  30. Parthenogenesis
    • gametes develop without fertilization
    • egg developes w/o sperm nucleus
  31. Ameiotic
    no meiosis, 2N egg
  32. Meiotic
    has meiosis, 1N egg
  33. Haplodiploidy
    • offspring formed from union of sperm + egg = female
    • offspring formed from union of sperm ONLY = male
    • ex: honey bees - males 1N, females 2N
  34. Gametogenesis cycle
    • Fertilization
    • Cleavage
    • Gastrulation -> 3 germ layers
    • Neurulation (Organogenesis)
    • Larval/ Junenile stage
    • Metamorphosis
    • Adult
    • Gametogenesis
  35. The primary sex organs are the ......... of which include the ............ (motile gametes) and the .......... (non-motile gametes)
    • Gonads
    • testies
    • ovary
  36. Spermatotogenesis pathway
    • Spermatagonia - like a germ cell
    • mitosis
    • primary spermatocyte (2N, 4C)
    • meiosis I
    • secondary spermatocyte (1N, 2C)
    • meiosis II
    • 4 spermatids (1N, 1C)
    • morphological change
    • spermatozoa (w/ flagella but NOT mature yet)
  37. Sertoli cells
    • nutures developing sperm cells thru stages of spermatogenesis
    • a "nurse" cell that secretes hormones
  38. Oogenesis resembles spermatogenesis but there is .............cell division
    unequal
  39. Oogenesis Pathyway (Human Menstrual Cycle)
    • oogonium
    • mitosis
    • primary oocyte w/ follicle (2N, 4C)
    • finish meiosis I and start meiosis II AND eject 1st polar body
    • secondary oocyte w/ mature follicle
    • Ovulation secretes secondary oocyte (1N, 2C) AND eject 2nd polar body
    • Ovum (entry of sperm = complete meiosis II => 1N,1C egg)
  40. Menstrual Cycle
    • in primates
    • mentruation = sheeding of endometrium (lining of uterus)
    • a secondary oocyte released during ovulation (every 14 days)
  41. Estrous Cycle
    • in non primate mammals (eg rat)
    • females receptive for mating only in specific intervals
    • a haploid ovum/ova are released during ovulation
  42. Oogenesis Pathway (Rat Estrous cycle)
    in non primary animals
  43. cells capable of undergoing mitosis or meiosis in females
    primary oogonia
  44. A small, single layered cluster of cells surrounding a developing ovum is a .................. As the .......... develops, it secretes................for the ovum and ...............
    • Follicle
    • Follicle
    • nutritents
    • estrogen
  45. Follicles of different sizes with several layers of cells at different stages of oogenesis is a ................. follicle
    Growing
  46. large follicles that buldge from the surface are ..............
    mature follicle
  47. The ............ is contained within a small mass of follicular cells that protrude into an extensive, fluid filled cavity known as the ..............
    • ovum
    • antrum
  48. A ......... is an egg contained within a mature follicle. MAY NOT BE SEEN ON SLIDE B/C ITS OUT OF THE PLANE OF SECTION
    ovum
  49. The .................... is a large mass of cells formed from the follicle after ovulation that secretes ............. and ...............
    • Corpus Luteum
    • estrogen
    • progesterone
  50. we induce the release of gametes of sea urchinese by injecting specific concentrations of .......... in the ................
    • KCI
    • coelom
  51. The union of membranes and the union of nuclei is called ............
    Fertilization
  52. External Fertilization
    • requires moist environment
    • large # of gametes
    • low fertilization rate
    • possibly increased morbidity of "offspring"
  53. Internal Fertilization
    • creates moist environment
    • decrease # of gametes
    • "copulatory" behavior for gamete transfer
    • delivery mech, storage of gametes
  54. Fast Block pathway
    • sperm penetrates jelly coat
    • depolarization of egg membrane from (-) to (+) cell potential
    • prevents polyspermy
    • can't be maintained for long b/c of huge change in membrane potential
  55. Slow Black pathway
    • after 1 min => fusion of cortical vesicles w/ egg cell membrane
    • vesicular contents released into perivitelline space => increased seperation between egg cell and vitelline membrane
    • also, enzymatic rxns result => harden vitelline membrane
  56. The larval stage of frogs is known as a ................ that is aquatic. It then metamorphosizes into an adult
    tadpole
  57. Fertilization in frogs is ........; eggs and sperm are released into the wate and fertilization must occur...........
    • external
    • externally
  58. Frog Development
    • Ovum
    • two cell stage
    • eight cell stage
    • blastula
    • gastrula
    • neurula
  59. the egg of a frog is known as the .......
    ovum
  60. two cell stage of frog eggs have a cleave plane that extends entirely through the zygote. This is ........................... cleavage. In .......................... cleavage, the cleavage plane does not extend entirely through the zygote
    • holoblastic
    • meroblastic
  61. The ................ stage is characterized by the formation of a ...................., a fluid filled cavity.
    • Blastula
    • blastocoel
  62. Externally, the ................ resembles a blastula, but cells are invaginating inward throught the blastopore. the .............. is visible in the blastopore. THREE germ layers form during.........
    • Gastrula
    • yolk plug
    • gastrulation
  63. the process by which the nervous system is formed is the ....................
    A .............. and a .................. are formed during this
    • Neuralation
    • neural tube
    • notochord (rod like)
  64. In reptiles, birds, and mammals, the embryos devleop in a watery cavity called the ..............
    Mammals are encased in the ................and nutrition obtained via .........................
    Birds and Reptiles are encased within ....... and their nourishment comes from ...... and ............ within egg
    • amnion
    • uterus
    • maternal circulation
    • shells
    • yolk
    • albumen
  65. The ............ is porous, allowing free diffusion of gases during chick development
    shell
  66. the body of a chick embryo is divided into ....... , ............, and ...........
    • head
    • trunk
    • tail
  67. The beginning of the appendages are visible as the ......................................
    The ......................... gives rise to wings
    The .......................... gives rise to legs
    • Anterior and Posterior limb buds
    • anterior
    • posterior
  68. The 4 extra-embryonic membranes of a chick embryo are......
    • yolk sace
    • chorion membrane
    • allantois membrane
    • amniotic membrane
  69. The ........... forms first and encloses the yolk. This will eventually surround the albumen
    The ............... is highly vascularized and helps with the uptake of nutrients
    There is an exchange of nutrients between the cells of the ............. and the cells that line the gut
    • yolk sac
    • yolk sac
    • yolk sac
  70. The ................ is filled with amniotic fluid and surrounds the embryo. It acts as a .................. and prevents ....................
    In addition .................... within membrane contract and help mix amniotic fluid to prevent sticking
    • amniotic membrane
    • cushion
    • desiccation
    • smooth muscles
  71. The .............. becomes a storage place for nitrogenous waste
    chickens store wastes mostly as ................
    • allantois
    • uric acid.
  72. The .............. and ................ will fuse eventually and be responsible for gas exchange across the egg shell
    • chorionic membrane
    • amniotic membrane

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview