Weather and Climate Ch6

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Weather and Climate Ch6
2011-08-05 22:49:09
Weather Climate

Weather and Climate Ch6
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  1. oragraphic uplift (oragraphic effect)
    the upward displacement of air that leads to cooling and possible cloud formation
  2. rain shadow
    when air descends down a slope an warms by compression, creating an area of lower precipitation
  3. cold front
    when cold air advances toward warmer air
  4. warm from
    when warm air advances toward cold air
  5. horizontal convergence (convergence)
    horizontal movement of mass toward a common location
  6. static stability
    the air's susceptibility to uplift
  7. environmental lapse rate (ELR)
    Whereas the temperature in the parcel of air is governed by the dry or saturated adiabatic lapse rate, the surroundings of the aire are governed by the environmental lapse rate.
  8. level of free convection
    the height to which a parcel of air must be lifted before it can become bouyant and lift on its own.
  9. entrainment
    turbulence causes ambient surrounding air to be drawn into the air parcel, as air parcels have to layer (unlike a balloon) to keep air in or out. This can suppress the growth of clouds as it can cause some of the liquid in the air parcel to evaporate.
  10. inversions
    Although on average the temperature of the troposphere decreases with elevation, in some situations temperature increases with elevation. The layers in the atmosphere where this can occur are called inversions.
  11. Cloud Types (4)
    • Cirrus - thin, whispy clouds of ice
    • Stratus - layered clouds
    • Cumulus - clouds with a vertical development
    • Nimbus - rain-producing clouds
  12. Clouds grouped by height and form
    • High Clouds - cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus
    • Middle Clouds - altostratus, altocumulus
    • Low Clouds - stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus
    • Clouds with extensive vertical development - cumulus, cumulonimbus
  13. contrails
    a type of ice cloud caused by jet air-craft.
  14. cirrostratus
    composed entirely of ice but tend to be more extensive horizontally and have a lower concentration of chrystals than cirrus.
  15. cirrocumulus
    composed of ice chrystals that arrange themselves into long rows of individual puffy clouds. Occur during wind shear.
  16. altostratus
    the middle-level counterparts to cirrostratus and are composed primarily of liquid water.
  17. altocumulus
    layered clouds that form long bands or contain a series of puffy clouds arranged in a row
  18. nimbostratus
    low, layered clouds that yeild precipitation
  19. stratocumulus
    low, layered clouds with some vertical development
  20. cumuliform
    clouds that have vertical development and occur when air is absolutely or conditionally unstable
  21. general circulation models (GCMs)
    complex computer programs scientists use to estimate the global distribution of temperature and precipitation of hypothetical changes in the atmosphere.
  22. cumulonimbus
    the most violent of all clouds and produce violent thunderstorms.
  23. anvil
    a layer of ice at the top of cumulonimbus clouds
  24. lenticular clouds
    form when mountains disrupt the flow of air and form a series of waves.
  25. banner clouds
    clouds located immediately above isolated mountain peaks
  26. mammatus
    downward, sac-like shapes that sometimes hang down from cumulonimbus clouds
  27. nacreous clouds
    consist of super-cooled droplets or ice crystals in the stratosphere at heights of about 30 km (20 miles)
  28. noctilucent clouds
    clouds above nacreous clouds