Weather and Climate Ch6
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oragraphic uplift (oragraphic effect)
the upward displacement of air that leads to cooling and possible cloud formation
when air descends down a slope an warms by compression, creating an area of lower precipitation
when cold air advances toward warmer air
when warm air advances toward cold air
horizontal convergence (convergence)
horizontal movement of mass toward a common location
the air's susceptibility to uplift
environmental lapse rate (ELR)
Whereas the temperature in the parcel of air is governed by the dry or saturated adiabatic lapse rate, the surroundings of the aire are governed by the environmental lapse rate.
level of free convection
the height to which a parcel of air must be lifted before it can become bouyant and lift on its own.
turbulence causes ambient surrounding air to be drawn into the air parcel, as air parcels have to layer (unlike a balloon) to keep air in or out. This can suppress the growth of clouds as it can cause some of the liquid in the air parcel to evaporate.
Although on average the temperature of the troposphere decreases with elevation, in some situations temperature increases with elevation. The layers in the atmosphere where this can occur are called inversions.
Cloud Types (4)
- Cirrus - thin, whispy clouds of ice
- Stratus - layered clouds
- Cumulus - clouds with a vertical development
- Nimbus - rain-producing clouds
Clouds grouped by height and form
- High Clouds - cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus
- Middle Clouds - altostratus, altocumulus
- Low Clouds - stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus
- Clouds with extensive vertical development - cumulus, cumulonimbus
a type of ice cloud caused by jet air-craft.
composed entirely of ice but tend to be more extensive horizontally and have a lower concentration of chrystals than cirrus.
composed of ice chrystals that arrange themselves into long rows of individual puffy clouds. Occur during wind shear.
the middle-level counterparts to cirrostratus and are composed primarily of liquid water.
layered clouds that form long bands or contain a series of puffy clouds arranged in a row
low, layered clouds that yeild precipitation
low, layered clouds with some vertical development
clouds that have vertical development and occur when air is absolutely or conditionally unstable
general circulation models (GCMs)
complex computer programs scientists use to estimate the global distribution of temperature and precipitation of hypothetical changes in the atmosphere.
the most violent of all clouds and produce violent thunderstorms.
a layer of ice at the top of cumulonimbus clouds
form when mountains disrupt the flow of air and form a series of waves.
clouds located immediately above isolated mountain peaks
downward, sac-like shapes that sometimes hang down from cumulonimbus clouds
consist of super-cooled droplets or ice crystals in the stratosphere at heights of about 30 km (20 miles)
clouds above nacreous clouds
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