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  1. Epimysium
    Tough connective tissue layer that covers muscle
  2. Perimysium
    Surrounds fasciculus or bundle of muscle fibers
  3. Endomysium
    Surrounds individual muscle fibers
  4. Sarcomere
    Functional unit of muscle cell from z-line to z-line; shortens during muscle contraction
  5. Myofilaments
    Actin and Myosin; do not change length during muscle contraction
  6. I-band
    Between the z-line and end of myosin; shortens during muscle contraction
  7. A-band
    Length of myosin; stays the same length during muscle contraction
  8. H-Zone
    Between ends of actin; disappears during muscle contraction
  9. Crossbridges/ Myosin heads
    On the myosin filaments; bind to actin and pull to cause muscle contraction
  10. Type I muscle fiber
    • Slow twitch
    • Slow oxidative
    • Slow acting
    • Longer lasting
    • Don't produce much force
  11. Type IIa muscle fibers
    • Fast twitch
    • Fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG)
    • Can be anaerobic or aerobic depending on how you train
  12. Type IIb muscle fibers
    • Fast contracting
    • Will convert to IIa fibers with training
    • Fast glycolytic
    • Quick to fatigue
  13. Alveoli
    Functional unit of the lungs
  14. Tidal Volume
    • Breathing under normal resting conditions
    • During exercise, it increases
    • Training tends to result in an increase in all of the various lung volumes at rest, except tidal volume
  15. Residual volume
    Amount of air still in the lungs after you completely exhale
  16. Sinoatrial (SA) node
    Primary intrinsic pacemaker of the heart
  17. Sympathetic nervous system
    • Increases heart rate
    • "gas pedal"
  18. Parasympathetic nervous system
    • Decreases hear rate
    • "brake"
  19. P-wave
    Depolarization of the atria
  20. QRS complex
    Depolarization of the ventricles
  21. T wave
    Repolarization of the ventricles
  22. Cardiac Output (CO)
    • Amount of blood pumped by heart in one minutes
    • Heart rate X Stroke Volume
    • (HR X SV)
  23. Stroke Volume
    Volume of blood ejected from heart per beat
  24. Cardiac response to Aerobic Exercise
    Peripheral Resistance:
    Mean BP
    • SBP will increase
    • DBP will stay about the same
    • Peripheral resistance will decrease due to capillaries opening up
    • Mean BP increases only slightly
  25. Cardiac response to resistance training
    Peripheral Resistance:
    Mean BP:
    • SBP increases
    • DBP increases but short lived
    • Peripheral resistance as more muscle mass is activated because the more occlusion the more resistance
    • Mean BP increases
  26. Fick Equation
    VO2 = [(EDV-ESV) X HR] X a-VO2
  27. End Diastolic Volume
    • EDV
    • Blood in the left ventricle after filling
  28. End Systolic Volume
    • ESV
    • Blood in the left ventricle after contraction
  29. Arterial O2 Content
    • a-VO2 difference
    • Venous O2 content in ml of O2/100 ml of blood
  30. VO2
    • Oxygen uptake rate
    • in L/min
  31. To increase VO2
    • Increase EDV, HR and a-VO2 difference
    • and/or Decrease ESV
  32. To increase SV
    • Increase EDV
    • and/or Decrease ESV
  33. OBLA
    • Onset of blood lactate accumulation
    • Threshold at which lactate can no longer be buffered and accumulates
    • AKA Anaerobic Threshold
  34. Phosphagen Energy System
    • Occurs in the Sarcoplasm
    • Anaerobic Energy System
    • Fastest replenishment of ATP
    • Smallest capacity
    • Energy for 0-6s up to 20-30s
  35. Glycolytic Energy System
    • Occurs in the Sarcoplasm
    • Anaerobic Energy System
    • Energy for 15-30s up to 2-3 min
  36. Oxidative Energy System
    • Occurs in the Mitochondria
    • Aerobic energy system
    • Slowest replenishment of ATP
    • Largest capacity
    • Activity lasting longer than 3 min
  37. Total energy yield of oxidation of 1 glucose molecule if starting with glucose
  38. Total energy yield of oxidation of 1 glucose molecule if starting with glycogen
  39. Primary and Secondary extent to which energy systems contribute to the energy being produced
    • Primary - Intensity
    • Secondary - Duration
  40. Training Fast Glycolosis and Oxidative Energy Systems
    • 30-75% max power
    • Energy for 1-3 min
    • 1:3 to 1:4 work to rest ratio
    • "Active" recovery
  41. Training Phosphagen Energy System
    • 90-100 % of max power
    • 5-10s
    • 1:12 to 1:20 work to rest ratio
    • "inactive" recovery
  42. Training Fast Glycolosis Energy System
    • 75-90 % of max power
    • 15-30s
    • 1:3 to 1:5 work to rest ratio
    • "Active" recovery
  43. Training Oxidative Energy System
    • 20-35% of max power
    • Greater than 3 min
    • 1:1 to 1:3 work to rest ratio
    • "inactive" recovery
  44. Depletion of ____ & _____ cause fatigue
    Creatine phosphate and glycogen
  45. First class lever
    • Muscle force and resistance force act on opposite sides of fulcrum
    • Elbow extension
  46. Second class lever
    • Resistance is central
    • Effort arm is always longer than resistive force
    • Muscular force and resistance force act on same side of fulcrum but resistance force acts at a point closer to fulcrum than muscle force
    • Toe raise
  47. Third class lever
    • Muscular force and resistance force act on the same side of fulcrum, but the muscular force acts at a point closer than the resistance force
    • Bicep curl
  48. Length-Tension relationship
    Force varies with the amount of myosin-actin overlap
  49. Force-velocity relationship
    Concentrically, movement velocity is inversely proportional to the force
  50. Force-time relationship
    Strength varies based on the time and duration of muscle activation
  51. Biochemical changes in muscle induced by Aerobic training
    • Increased myoglobin content
    • Increased oxidation of glycogen
    • Increased oxidation of fat
  52. Biochemical changes in muscle induced by Anaerobic training
    • Increased capacity of the ATP-PC system
    • Increased glycolytic capacity
  53. Cardiovascular Training Adaptations
    _____ in Cardiac output
    Increase, due to improved SV
  54. Cardiovascular Training Adaptations
    _______ Injection Fraction
  55. Cardiovascular Training Adaptations
    _____ in Capillarization in Tissue
  56. Cardiovascular Training Adaptations
    _____ in Plasma Volume and total Hemoglobin
  57. Cardiovascular Training Adaptations
    Maximal Heart Rate _____
    • May increase or decrease
    • Increase due to learning effect
    • Decrease due to increased vagal tone
  58. Respiratory Training Adaptations
    _____ in Maximal Exercise Ventilation and VO2
  59. Respiratory Training Adaptations
    ____ in Tidal Volume
  60. Respiratory Training Adaptations
    ______ in Extration of oxygen
  61. Respiratory Training Adaptations
    Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation (OBLA) _____
    Occurs at a higher percentage of the trained person's aerobic capacity
  62. Testing Sequence
    • Non-fatiguing tests (skin-fold, girth, etc)
    • Agility
    • Max power & strength (3RM PC, 1RM BP)
    • Sprint tests (40 yd)
    • Local muscular endurance tests (1 min sit up)
    • Fatiguing capacity tests (400M, Shuttle)
    • Aerobic Capacity (1.5 mile)
  63. Harman Equation
    Measures peak power
  64. Lewis Equation
    Measures average power
  65. Speed Endurance Training Workout:
    Extensive Intervals
    • Low to medium intensity - 60-80%
    • Large Volume
    • High Density
    • 1:3 Work to rest ratio
    • Short to medium duration
    • 100-400 M
  66. Speed Endurance Training Workout:
    Intensive Intervals
    • High intensity - 80-90%
    • Small Volume
    • Medium density
    • 1.5-3 min recovery
    • Short duration - < 1 min
  67. Speed Endurance Training Workout:
    • High intensity
    • Low volume (3-6 reps)
    • Low density
    • Long rest - > 3 min recovery
    • Very short duration to medium - 2-60 sec
  68. Speed Endurance Training Workout:
    Competitive Trials
    • High intensity
    • Low volume
    • Low density
    • Race distance duration
  69. "Bruce" Protocol
    • VO2 Max test
    • Suggested for younger or active people
    • Collect expired gases and measure BP and HR
  70. "Balke" Protocol
    • Submax test
    • Smaller increment time
    • Appropriate for older or deconditioned individuals
  71. Physiological Factors Affecting VO2 Max
    • Aerobic capacity
    • Capillary Density
    • Hemoglobin/Myoglobin
Card Set:
2011-08-05 16:26:16

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