54 Peds

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Jme
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96212
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54 Peds
Updated:
2011-09-26 00:32:37
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Prenatal
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Prenatal
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  1. Known teratogens to avoid
    • Warfarin (Coumadin) - anticoagulatant
    • Isotreinoin (Accutane) - VitaA acne
    • Gold salts - Aurothioglucose arthritis
    • Lithium (Eskalith) -manic depression
    • Diazepam (Valium)- anxiety disorders
    • Phenytoin (Dilantin) - antiseizure
    • Tetracycline - antibacterial, antifungal
    • Diethylstilbestrol - estrogen
    • DES (stilphostrol) - non-steroidal estro
    • Live virus vaccine -antiviral
    • Folic Acid Antagonists - Vitamin B complex
  2. Can cause birth defects (prescribed meds, street drug, alcohol, disease that the mother is exposed during pregnancy)
    Teratogens
  3. Healthy lifestyle before pregnancy means?
    Low-fat, high-fiber diet rich in vegetables and fruits; exercising at least 3 times a week and getting to within 15lbs of one's ideal weight
  4. All women who possibly could be pregnant should have an intake of?
    400 mcg of folic acid (B a vitamin supplement) and/or fortified foods, and eat a healthful diet.
  5. Tests that are completed during pregnancy
    Syphilis, Hep B, HIV, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, HPV, and herpes simplex
  6. Low-birth weight complication is
    smoking
  7. Illicit drugs can lead to
    Abnormalities and disorders
  8. The condition of carrying an offspring within the body
    Pregnancy
  9. Sexual act that delivers sperm to the cervix by ejaculatoin of the erect penis
    Coitus or Copulation

    (Fertalization)
  10. Union of the ovum and sperm
    Fertalization

    (Fertalization)
  11. Fertalized ovum
    Zygote

    (Fertalization)
  12. Mass of cells resembling a mulberry
    Morula

    (Fertalization)
  13. Cluster of cells that will develop into an embryo
    Blastocyst

    (Fertalization)
  14. Embedding of a fertalized egg into the uterine lining
    Implantation

    (Implantation)
  15. The endometrium after implantation
    Decidua

    (Implantation)
  16. Outer fetal membrane formed by a trophoblast
    Chorion

    (Implantation)
  17. Inner fetal membrane originating from a blastocyst
    Amnion

    (Implantation)
  18. Fine hair covering body of the fetus is
    Lanugo

    (Amniotic fluid)
  19. White, creamy covering of the fetus's body is
    Vernix caseosa

    (Amniotic fluid)
  20. ??
    Placenta
  21. Rapid cell division & differentiation
    Germinal layers form
    Week 1 & 2 (Preembryonic or Germinal stage)
  22. Primitive nerous system
    Eyes
    Ears
    RBCs present
    Heart begins to beat day 21
    Week 3 (Embryonic Stage)
  23. Half the size of a pea
    Brain differentiates
    GI tract begins to form
    Limb buds appear
    Week 4

    • Wt 0.4g
    • L 4-6mm
    • (Crown-rump C-R)
  24. Cranial nerves present
    Muscles have innervation
    Week 5

    L 6-8mm (C-R)
  25. Fetal circulation
    Liver produces RBCs
    Cental autonomic nervous system forms
    Primitive kidneys form
    Lung buds present
    Cartilage forms
    Primitive skeleton forms
    Muscles differentiate
    Week 6

    L 10-14mm (C-R)
  26. Eyelids form
    Palate and tongue form
    Stomach formed
    Diaphram formed
    Arms legs move
    Week 7

    L 22-28mm (C-R)
  27. Resembles human being
    Eyes moved to face front
    Heart development complete
    Hands and feet well formed
    Bone cells begin replacing cartilage
    All body organs have begun forming
    Week 8

    • Wt 2g
    • L 3cm (1.5in) (C-R)
  28. Finger and toenails form
    Eyelids fuse shut
    Week 9 (Fetal stage)
  29. Head growth slows
    Islets of Langerhans differentiate
    Bone marrow forms, RBCs
    Bladder sac forms
    Kidneys make urine
    Week 10

    Wt 14g (1/2oz)
  30. Tooth buds appear
    Liver secretes bile
    Urinary system functions
    Insulin forms in pancreas
    Week 11
  31. Lungs take shape
    Palate fuses
    HB heard with Doppler
    Ossification established
    Swallowing reflex present
    Exnternal genitalia, male/female, distinguished
    Week 12

    • Wt 45g (1.5oz)
    • L 9cm (3.5in) (C-R)
    • 11.5cm (4.5in) (C-H)
  32. *Meconium forms in bowels
    Scalp hair appears
    Frequent movement
    Skin thin, pink
    Sensitive to light
    200mL amniotic fluid
    (Amniocentesis possible)

    *Fecal material stored in the fetal intestines - The earliest stools of the infant (bile, mucus and epithelial cells)
    Week 16 (Second trimester)

    • Wt 200g (7oz)
    • L 13.5cm (5.5in) (C-R)
    • 15cm (6in) (C-H)
  33. *Myelination of spinal cord begins
    Peristalsis begins
    Lanugo covers the body
    Vernix Caseosa covers the body
    Brown fat begun
    Sucks and swallows amniotic fluid
    HB heart with a fetoscope
    Hands can grasp
    Regular schedule of sucking, kicking, and sleeping

    *development, formation of the myelin sheath around a nerve fiber - maturation of nerve cells whereby myelin is formed
    Week 20

    • Wt 435 g (15oz)
    • L 19cm (7.5in) (C-R)
    • 25cm (10 in) (C-H)
  34. Alveoli present in lungs, begin producing *surfactant
    Eyes completely formed
    Eyelashes and eyebrows appear
    Many reflexes appear
    Change of survival born

    *Reduces surface tension of fluid in the lungs and helps make the small air sacs in the lungs (Alveoli) more stable. keeps them from collapsing when individual exhales - helps to not stick
    Week 24

    • Wt 780g
    • (1lb, 12oz)
    • L 23cm (9in) (C-R)
    • 28cm (11in) (C-H)
  35. Subcutaneous fat deposits begun
    Lanugo begins to disappear
    Nails appear
    Eyelids open and close
    Testes begin to descend
    Week 28 (Third trimester)

    • Wt 1200g
    • (2lb, 10oz)
    • L 28cm (11in) (C-R)
    • 35cm (14in) (C-H)
  36. More reflexes present
    CNS directs rhythmic breathing movements
    CNS partially controls body temperature
    Begins storing iron, Calcium, phosphorus
    Ratio of the lung surfactants *lecithin and sphingomyelin (L/S) is 1.2:2
    Week 32

    • Wt 2,000g
    • (4lb, 6.5oz)
    • L 31cm (12in) (C-R)
    • 41cm (16in (C-H)
  37. A few creases on soles of feet
    Skin less wrinkled
    Fingernails reach fingertips
    Sleep-wake cycle fairly definite
    Transfer of maternal antibodies
    Week 36

    • Wt 2,500-2,750g
    • (5lbs, 8oz)
    • L 35cm (14in) (C-R)
    • 48cm (19in) (C-H)
  38. L/S ratio 2:1
    Week 38
  39. Lanugo only on shoulders and upper back
    Creases cover soles
    Vernix mainly in folds of skin
    Ear cartilage firm
    Less active, limited space, Ready to be worn
    Week 40

    • Wt 3,000-3,600g
    • (6lb, 10oz-7lb, 15oz)
    • L 50cm (20in) (C-H)
  40. Cardiovascular system consists of
    Fetal circulation

    • Ductus venousus
    • Foramen ovale
    • Ductus arteriosus

    Hematologic Development
  41. A flap opening the atrial septum that allows only right to left movement of blood is

    *
    Foramen Ovale
  42. Fetal vessel connecting to the pulmonary artery to the aorta
    Ductus arteriosus

    • PA
    • Pulmonary artery to aorta
  43. Branch of the umbilical vein that enters the inferior vena cava
    Ductus venosus

    UI
  44. Painless contractions (about 16 weeks or later) are irregular uterine contractions occuring throughout pregnancy is
    Braxton-Hicks contractions
  45. Most obvious physiological occur in the
    Reproductive system
  46. Striae gravidarum
    Stretch marks
  47. Softening of the uterine isthmus about the 6th week of pregnancy, noted during a pelvic exam is
    Hegar's sign

    a probable sign of pregnancy
  48. A pigmented line on the abdomen from the umbilicus to symphysis pubis is
    Linea nigra
  49. Mask of pregnancy - a darkening of the skin of the forehead and around they eyes is
    Cholasma
  50. An antibody rich yellow fluid secreated by the breasts during the last trimester and the first 2-3 days after birth, gradually changes to milk a few days after delivery
    Colostrum
  51. Naturally secreted by the ovary in the second two weeks of menstrual cycle - a female hormone important for the regulation of ovulation and menstration
    Progesterone

    --used to cause menstral periods in women who have not reached menopause but are not having periods due to the lack of progesterone in the body
  52. Excretion of glucose in the urine
    Glycosuria
  53. GFR
    Glomerular filtration rate

    begins rising in the 2nd trimester
  54. (Cervix - 8 weeks)

    Softening of the cervix
    Goodell's sign
  55. (Cervix - 8 weeks)

    A purplish-blue color of the cervix and vagina caused by the increased vascularity is
    Chadwick's sign
  56. Loss of pregnancy before the age of viability (20 weeks)
    Abortion
  57. Gravida, para/term, preterm, abortions, living
    GP/TPAL

    Examples

    • Mary Jo is
    • G2 P1/T2 P0 A0 L2

    Second pregnancy (G2), one delivery (P1)/two infants at term (twins) (T2), both living

    Susan G4 P2/T1 P1 A1 L2

    Fourth pregnancy, two deliveries/one term infant, one preterm infant, one abortion, two living children
  58. Pregnancy regardless of duration includes present pregnancy
    Gravida
  59. Delivery (birth) after 20 weeks gestation, wheter infant born alive or dead or number of infants born
    Para
  60. Delivery after 20 weeks gestation but before 38 weeks (full-term)
    Preterm
  61. A pregnancy between 38 and 42 weeks gestation
    Term
  62. Never been pregnant
    Nulligravida
  63. Pregnant for the first time
    Primigravida
  64. Pregnant 2 or more times
    Multigravida
  65. Never having delivered an infant after 20 weeks gestation
    Nullipara
  66. Has delivered once after 20 weeks gestation
    Primipara
  67. Has delivered twice or more after 20 weeks gestation
    Multipara
  68. Delivery after 42 weeks gestation
    Postterm
  69. Month
    6 (June)
    -3 months
    3 (March)

    Day
    28
    +7 days
    35

    1st day of Women's LMP
    Naegele's Rule - Calculating EDB

    • Take the date of the 1st day of the LMP
    • Subtract 3 mths
    • Add 7 days

    LMP was June 28 calculation above
  70. Measurements used an EDB
    • Uterine size
    • date of quickening
    • Date when the fetal HB was heard
    • Ultrasound fetal measurements
  71. Top of uterus
    Fundus
  72. Gestation Calculation Wheel
    Vagistat
  73. A membranous vascular organ connecting the fetus to the mother is?
    What does it do?
    Placenta

    • Produces hormones
    • Supplies fetus w/ oxygen and food
    • Transports waste products
  74. The three major functions of the placenta
    Transport, endocrine, metabolism
  75. Endocrine secretes five hormones
    • hCG - human chorionic gonadotrophin
    • hPL - human placenta lactogen
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
    • Relaxin
  76. Fetal development divded in to three stages they are
    • Embryonic and germinal stage - 1-2
    • Embryonic - 3 week
    • Fetal stage - 9 week
  77. Second trimester begins on week
    16
  78. Third trimester begins on week
    28
  79. The primitive heart begins at
    21 days or week 3
  80. Factors affecting psychological response
    • Body image
    • Financial situation

    • Cultural expectations
    • Emotional security
    • Support from significant other
  81. Return visits for q 4 weeks should be at
    28 weeks
  82. AFB testing is accepted as the standard of care and must be offered to pregnant women between ___ and ___ weeks of pregnancy
    16-20

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