Micro - Public Health

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Micro - Public Health
2011-08-05 09:40:36
UWS Micro

Micro test 2 Public health
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  1. Reservoirs
    Long term hosts of pathogens
  2. Inanimate Reservoirs
    Primary vs secondary
    • 1- microbes are viable and multiply
    • 2- viable but dont multiply
  3. living reservoirs
    Humans or animals
  4. zoonosis
    disease that can spread from animal to human
  5. endemic
    infection in population without external inputs, always present in pop
  6. epidemic
    new cases exceding expectation

    higher incidence
  7. pandemic
    global epidemic
  8. Herd immunity
    • portin of populat. immune to the disease.
    • (vaccination or immunity)
    • inable to spread disease
  9. BOD
    biological oxygen demand

    • quantity of o2 needed by the bacteria in the water
    • increases with age of h2o
  10. coliform testing
    2 tests for lactose microbes

    Maconkey = + dark purple, - clear

    • Emb agar = + colonies with dark center, - colorless
    • ECOLI = metallic green
  11. Primary water treatment
    Physical process, remove solids
  12. secondary
    • biological proces
    • trickling filter & activated sludge
  13. tertiary
    • biological
    • add lime or alum to remove nitrates and phophates
  14. septic sys
    anaerobic digestion, small only
  15. pastuerization
    72c for 15 sec
  16. phosphatase test
    used to check if pasteurizat worked. should have destroyed enzyme in process
  17. harm studies
    assess causual relationship, treatment and disease
  18. confounder
    anything that independently affects the exposure and the outcome
  19. hill's criteria for causality
    minimal conditions to establish causality

    • - temporal relationship
    • exp evidence
    • dose response relation
    • consistency
    • plausibility
  20. cohort study
    • prosepctive (or retrospect)
    • more ethically permisible
    • RR relative risk (strength of causality)
  21. RR- relative risk
    strength of causality, risk of disease in exposed vs not exposed
  22. case control study
    useful if the outcome you want is rare or takes a long time to develop

    • retrospective
    • true risk of happening cant be calculated
    • must check odds ration(OR)
  23. RR
    • if =1 no association
    • RR>1, increase risk with exposure
    • <1 decreased risk w/ exp
  24. OR
    • =1 no association
    • OR>1 exposure increases risk
    • <1 reduces risk
  25. case study
    • no comparison with another group
    • so cant derive causality
    • only good for developing hypothesis
  26. Ambroise Pare
    1500s, found alternative to boiling water for cauterizing wounds
  27. james lind
    tested lime juice prevented scurvy
  28. Morbidity
    incidence or how fast the disease develops

    #of new cases/pop. at risk
  29. mortality
    • death rate from disease
    • #deaths/pop. that yr
  30. prevalence
    • # of people infected at a specific time
    • #of cases/pop.
  31. hippocrates
    epidemic vs endemic
  32. john graunt
    bills of mortality, kept vital statistics
  33. WHO
    un agency - health is human right
  34. Pan american health organization
    • improve health in the americas
    • now a part of the WHO
  35. UNICEF
    united nations childrens fund, un partner - protect childrens rights