Weather and Climate Ch7
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air exerts an opposing resistance on falling objects called drag
As the speed of a falling object increases, so does the the drag (resistance), until its force equals that of gravity and the acceleration ceases. The object continues to fall, but at a constant speed, which is called its terminal velocity.
clouds having temperature greater than 0 degrees C throughout.
the collision-coelescence process causes precipitation in warm clouds
cloud droplets come in different sizes and so have different terminal velocities. The largest drop is called the collector drop. As the collector drop falls through a warm cloud it collects smaller drops (this can create collision and coalescence/precipitation)
when a collector drop collides with smaller drops below it as it falls
When a collector drop collides with a smaller drop it is possible that they might collide and then bounce off each other, but it is more often that they stick together, or coelesce.
clouds with temperatures below 0 degrees C
clouds with temperatures above 0 degrees C yet remain in the lower temperature reaches and subfreezing conditions.
the coexistence of ice crystals and supercooled water droplets. The idea that if there is enough water vapor in the air to keep a supercooled water droplet in equilibrium, then there is more than enough water vapor in the air to keep an ice crystal in equilibrium.
when ice crystals fall through a cloud and collide with supercooled droplets, those droplets freeze onto the ice crystal. (Thus, ice crystals can be ice nucleus) Riming/accretion results in rapid ice crystal growth, which results in an increase in falling speed and promotes further riming.
the joining of two ice crystals to form a single larger one.
results from the growth of ice crystals through deposition, riming, and aggregation.
virtually all precipitation is rain.
the episodic precipitation from rapidly developing clouds are called showers
when an ice crystal takes on additional mass through riming, air bubbles can form, and sharp edges are smoothed out.
ice pellets formed in concentric layers when an ice pellet that has been coated by water droplets is carried by an updraft to higher altitude, then the water layer freezes to form a new layer. This can happen to one ice pellet multiple times, resulting in hail.
water droplets freeze in the air when falling
when a light rain of supercooled droplets falls to form a light layer of water and then that layer quickly freees to form a coating of ice.
measures rainfall by funneling the rainfall into a tube the using a callibrated stick to measure its depth
automated collector provides a continuous record of the timing and intensity of the precipitation
continuous, much like a tipping-bucket gage, but a weighing mechanism translates the weight into depth.
automated air mattresses filled with antifreeze liquid and connected to pressure recorders. They measure the pressure of snow falling onto them and automatically send the data.
injecting nonprecipitating clouds with either dry ice or silver iodide in the hopes of inducing precipitation through the Bergeron process (ex. - during droughts)
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