CNS Lecture Notes

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Author:
calynfurr
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96299
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CNS Lecture Notes
Updated:
2011-08-06 02:52:28
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Pharmacology Pharmacy Technician
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PHM114
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  1. what is potency
    measuer of strength or concentration
  2. What is the only route of Administration that is 100% bioavailable?
    IV
  3. What is an Agonist?
    Promoter
  4. What is Antagonist?
    Blocker
  5. What is a toxic effect?
    unintended, extreamly harmful, potentially life threating effect
  6. What is Dependency?
    Where a patient needs a drug to "function normally", known when stopping of drug creates withdrawal symptoms
  7. what does ADME stand for
    it is pharmacokinetics, and it is for Administration, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
  8. Age, weight, sex/percentge of body fat, genetic variation, emotional state, concomitant disease are what?
    factors of individual variation
  9. What are the routes of administration
    ENTERAL: oral(PO), Buccal, Sublingual(SL), Rectal(PR)... PARENTERAL: introcular & intranasal, inhalation, intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, topical
  10. What is the CNS
    central nervous system; brain & spinal cord
  11. What is the basic neve cell called
    Neuron
  12. What is the ganglion
    group of neuron cell bodies outside of the CNS
  13. what are neurotransmitters?
    chemicals released from neurons to stimulate tissues.cells. or toher neurons
  14. What is afferent neurons?
    aka sensory, they carry impulses form receptors to CNS
  15. What is efferent neurons?
    aka motor, they carry impulses fom the CNS to effectors causing muscles to contract or relax and glands to increase or decrease secretions
  16. what regulates cardiac, vasomotor, & respiratory functions
    Medulla
  17. what are the 2 divisons of the ANS
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic
  18. what is the sympathetic division
    aka adrenergic, associated with the "flight or fight", originate from the brain and spinal cord
  19. what is the parasympathic
    aka cholinergic, associated with the "rest and digest", originate form the thoracic & lumbar spinal nerves
  20. what are examples of neurotransmitters
    norepinephrine, epinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, GABA
  21. What does norepinephrine and epinephrine do
    NE: stimulates many internal organs to increase sympathetic activity; EPI: same as NE, also causes a relaxation of the smoothe muscle in few organs
  22. what happens when the sympathetic response is stimulated
    eyes dilate, sweat glands are stimulated, breathing increases, decrease in peristalsis & secretion of digestive juices
  23. what is the difference between a CI and CII drug?
    CI have no medical usage
  24. what is the scientific name of a drug
    the chemical name, it lists all the chemicals in the drug
  25. what is the difference between acute and chronic pain
    acute is sever discomfort with sudden onset, usually subsides with treatment, whereas chronic pain persists or reocurrs and continues for 6 or more months, may be difficult to treat effectively
  26. what is the antidote for opioids
    Naloxone (Narcan)
  27. what is the antidote for benzodiazepines
    flumazenil (Romazicon)
  28. how does an opioid antagonist work
    blocks subjective and objective opioid effects
  29. what would be some examples of non-opioid analgesic drugs
    ASA, APAP, and NSAIDs
  30. what are non opioid analgesics for?
    nild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation, and other chronic musculoskeletal inflammation
  31. what are some side effects of NSAIDs
    rash, N/V, dizziness, drowsiness, GI problems, nephrotoxicity, and tinnitus
  32. What narcotic comes in a patch
    fentanyl, Duragesic
  33. weight, age, smoker, addict, alcoholics, and pregnancy are things you must consider before you do what
    before you give general anesthesia
  34. what are the stages of anesthesia
    analgesia, excitement, surgical anesthesia, medullary paralysis
  35. What drugs are used for minor procedures
    Nitrous Oxide
  36. ketamine falls under what classification
    dissociative anesthetics
  37. what drug will decrease secretions, vomiting, and lorenzospasms?
    anticholinergics
  38. what is a good topical anesthesia
    Benzocaine, Lidocaine, & tetracaine
  39. define pain
    highly subjective, and difficult to define
  40. what is another use for codine
    antitussive
  41. what neurotransmitters are responsible for fine motor movements
    AcH and dopamine
  42. subcutaneous route of administration means what?
    right under the skin
  43. what are the opioid receptors
    Mu, Kappa, Delta, & Sigma
  44. Nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and ototoxicity can be cause from what?
    direct toxicity
  45. what is the prototype for opioid agonist?
    morphine
  46. certified detoxification clinics may use what drug?
    methadone
  47. Delayed release tablets are specially coated tablets where the drug is dissolved at different rates?
    True
  48. What controlled substance class has a moderate abuse potential
    CIII
  49. What controlled substance class has high abuse potential
    CI and CII
  50. what can affect pain threshold
    anxiety, sleeplessness, tiredness, discomfort, pain, anger, fear, fright depression, isolation

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