CNS Lecture Notes
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CNS Lecture Notes
Pharmacology Pharmacy Technician
what is potency
measuer of strength or concentration
What is the only route of Administration that is 100% bioavailable?
What is an Agonist?
What is Antagonist?
What is a toxic effect?
unintended, extreamly harmful, potentially life threating effect
What is Dependency?
Where a patient needs a drug to "function normally", known when stopping of drug creates withdrawal symptoms
what does ADME stand for
it is pharmacokinetics, and it is for Administration, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
Age, weight, sex/percentge of body fat, genetic variation, emotional state, concomitant disease are what?
factors of individual variation
What are the routes of administration
ENTERAL: oral(PO), Buccal, Sublingual(SL), Rectal(PR)... PARENTERAL: introcular & intranasal, inhalation, intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, topical
What is the CNS
central nervous system; brain & spinal cord
What is the basic neve cell called
What is the ganglion
group of neuron cell bodies outside of the CNS
what are neurotransmitters?
chemicals released from neurons to stimulate tissues.cells. or toher neurons
What is afferent neurons?
aka sensory, they carry impulses form receptors to CNS
What is efferent neurons?
aka motor, they carry impulses fom the CNS to effectors causing muscles to contract or relax and glands to increase or decrease secretions
what regulates cardiac, vasomotor, & respiratory functions
what are the 2 divisons of the ANS
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
what is the sympathetic division
aka adrenergic, associated with the "flight or fight", originate from the brain and spinal cord
what is the parasympathic
aka cholinergic, associated with the "rest and digest", originate form the thoracic & lumbar spinal nerves
what are examples of neurotransmitters
norepinephrine, epinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, GABA
What does norepinephrine and epinephrine do
NE: stimulates many internal organs to increase sympathetic activity; EPI: same as NE, also causes a relaxation of the smoothe muscle in few organs
what happens when the sympathetic response is stimulated
eyes dilate, sweat glands are stimulated, breathing increases, decrease in peristalsis & secretion of digestive juices
what is the difference between a CI and CII drug?
CI have no medical usage
what is the scientific name of a drug
the chemical name, it lists all the chemicals in the drug
what is the difference between acute and chronic pain
acute is sever discomfort with sudden onset, usually subsides with treatment, whereas chronic pain persists or reocurrs and continues for 6 or more months, may be difficult to treat effectively
what is the antidote for opioids
what is the antidote for benzodiazepines
how does an opioid antagonist work
blocks subjective and objective opioid effects
what would be some examples of non-opioid analgesic drugs
ASA, APAP, and NSAIDs
what are non opioid analgesics for?
nild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation, and other chronic musculoskeletal inflammation
what are some side effects of NSAIDs
rash, N/V, dizziness, drowsiness, GI problems, nephrotoxicity, and tinnitus
What narcotic comes in a patch
weight, age, smoker, addict, alcoholics, and pregnancy are things you must consider before you do what
before you give general anesthesia
what are the stages of anesthesia
analgesia, excitement, surgical anesthesia, medullary paralysis
What drugs are used for minor procedures
ketamine falls under what classification
what drug will decrease secretions, vomiting, and lorenzospasms?
what is a good topical anesthesia
Benzocaine, Lidocaine, & tetracaine
highly subjective, and difficult to define
what is another use for codine
what neurotransmitters are responsible for fine motor movements
AcH and dopamine
subcutaneous route of administration means what?
right under the skin
what are the opioid receptors
Mu, Kappa, Delta, & Sigma
Nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and ototoxicity can be cause from what?
what is the prototype for opioid agonist?
certified detoxification clinics may use what drug?
Delayed release tablets are specially coated tablets where the drug is dissolved at different rates?
What controlled substance class has a moderate abuse potential
What controlled substance class has high abuse potential
CI and CII
what can affect pain threshold
anxiety, sleeplessness, tiredness, discomfort, pain, anger, fear, fright depression, isolation