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Managing a culturally diverse workforce by recognizing the characteristics common to specific groups of employees while dealing with such employees as individuals and supporting, nurturing, and utilizing their differences to the organization’s advantage.
Differences that include religious affiliation, age, disability status, military experience, sexual orientation, economic class, educational level, lifestyle, gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality
What does it mean to manage diversity?
means not just tolerating or accommodating all sorts of differences, but supporting, nurturing, and utilizing these differences to the organization’s advantage.
- 1. Women make up about 47 percent of the workforce.
- 2. The overall labor force of women rose throughout the 1970's
- 3. Almost 60 percent of marriages are dual-earner marriages.
- 4. One of every four married women in two-income households earns more than her husband does
Gender Issues: (cont)
an invisible barrier making it difficult for women and minorities to move beyond a certain level in the corporate hierarchy.
Gender Issues: (cont)
--Sexual harassment (2)
- 1. Quid pro quo harassment-Submission to or rejection of sexual conduct is used as a basis for employment decisions.
- 2. Hostile environment-Occurs when unwelcome sexual conduct has the effect of unreasonably interfering with job performance or creating an intimidating or hostile, working environment.
Minorities and Immigrants:
- 1. Black, Asian, and Hispanic workers hold more than one of every four jobs
- 2. Asian and Hispanic workforces are growing the fastest, followed by the African-American workforce
- 3. Three in 10 college enrollees are people of color.
- 4. By 2020, most of California’s entry-level workers will be Hispanic
Minorities and Immigrants: (cont)
- 1. English has become the second language for much of the population in California, Texas, and Florida
- 2. Foreign-born workers make up more than 15 percent of the U.S. civilian labor force
- 3. One in 40 people in the United States identifies himself or herself as multiracial
Mentally and Physically Disabled People:
- 1. The largest unemployed minority in the U.S.
- 2. The share of the population with a disability is growing
- 3. Assistive technologies make it easier for companies to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act
The Age of the Workforce:
- 1. The median age of workers is rising substantially while the number of young workers is growing only slightly
- 2. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that entry-level workers will be in short supply in the future.
- 3. 70% of workers between 45-70 intend to work in retirement
- 4. To prevent an exodus of talent, employers need strategies to help retain and attract skilled older workers.
- 5. Employers must also compete for talented young workers.
An organization that has a low degree of structural integration—employing few women, minorities, or other groups that differ from the majority—and thus has a highly homogeneous employee population.
An organization that has a relatively diverse employee population and makes an effort to involve employees from different gender, racial, or cultural backgrounds.
- 1. Managers
- Survival Instinct
- Detached and guarded
- Relatively anonymous
- 2. Leaders
- Detached and vulnerable
- Create their own chaos
- Step up, take charge
- Face of change (or
The Logical Path for Leadership
- 1. Human nature leads to variable and dynamic power
- 2. Power leads to the need for structures, controls, governance
- 3. Interaction between established structure and nature of environment requires human intervention
- 4. Some traits, some styles, some combinations work better than others
- 1. One who influences others to attain goals.
- 2. The greater the number of followers, the greater the influence
What are the Key Leadership Behaviors?
- 1. Challenge the process
- 2. Inspire a shared vision
- 3. Enable others to act
- 4. Model the way
- 5. Encourage the heart
A mental image of a possible and desirable future state of organization.
Sources of Power (Generic Sources)
- 1. Positional
- 2. Personal
“The Great Man” theory
- A leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share
- This is the classical understanding of leadership
Leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.
The Vroom Model of Leadership
A situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership.
Fiedler’s Contingency Model (chap. 12)
A situational approach to leadership postulating that effectiveness depends on the personal style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control, and influence over the situation.
Fiedler’s Contingency Model (cont.)
- 1. Task-motivated leadership-Leadership that places primary emphasis on completing a task.
- 2. Relationship-motivated leadership
- 3. Leadership that places primary emphasis on maintaining good interpersonal relationships.
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
A life-cycle theory of leadership postulating that a manager should consider an employee’s psychological and job maturity before deciding whether task performance or maintenance behaviors are more important.
A theory that concerns how leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals.
Forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person's effors.
Managers must motivate people to...?
- 1. join the organization
- 2. remain in the organization
- 3. come to work regularly
- 4. perform
- 5. exibit good citzenship
A motivation therory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end.
Law of effect
A law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911 stating that behavior that is followed by positive consequences that will likely be repeated.
Positive consequences that motivate behavior.
Oraganizational Behavior Modification (OB mod)
the application of reinforcement therory in organizational settings.
A theory proposing that people will behave based on their percieved likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome.
The percieved likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome.
The Value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
A conception of human needs organizing needs into a hierarchy of five major types.
- 1. Physiological (food, water, sex, and shelter).
- 2. Safety or security (protection against threat and deprivation).
- 3. Social (friendship, affection, belonging, and love).
- 4. Ego (independence, achievement, freedom, status, recognition, and self esteem).
- 5. Self-actualization (realizing one’s full potential, becoming everything one is capable of being).
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
A human needs theory postulating that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously.
- 1. Existence needs-all material and physiological desires.
- 2. Relatedness needs-involve relationships with other people and are satisfied through the process of mutually sharing thoughts and feelings.
- 3. Growth needs-motivate people to productively or creatively change themselves or their environment.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
1. Hygiene factors--Characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision, that can make people dissatisfied.
2. Motivators--Factors that make a job more motivating, such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement
The Hackman and Oldham Model of Job Design
- 1. Skill variety-different job activities involving several skills and talents.
- 2. Task identity-the completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work
- 3. Task significance-an important, positive impact on the lives of others
- 4. Autonomy-independence and discretion in making decisions.
- 5. Feedback-information about job performance
A theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs.
Motivating People to Change
- General reasons for resistance
- Surprise (uncertainty)
- Peer pressure
Motivating People to Change
Change-specific reasons for resistance