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Phonemes are classified as....
- Vowels (and dipthongs)
There are____consonants in English
Consonants are classified by 3 main features:
PLACE is a _____ in the vocal tract
Place involves the....?
(moveable and fixed articulators)
- Tongue, Lips, velum, mandible (moveable)
- Teeth, hard palate, alveolar ridge (fixed)
Bilabial (place descriptors)
Bring the lips together (both lips are involved)
Labiodental (place descriptors)
Lips AND teeth are involved in making sound
Linguadental (place descriptors)
Teeth AND tongue are involved in making sounds
*Lingua-alveolar (place descriptors)
Tongue and point of constriction (alevolar ridge)
Linguapalatal (place descriptors)
Flat part of tongue and hard pallet are involved
*Linguavelar (place descriptors)
BACK of tongue and velum
Glottal (place descriptors)
One phoneme "H"
The way in which the valves of the vocal tract constrict the airway
Stop (plosive) (manner descriptor)
Complete blockage of airstream then a quick release.
Fricative (manner descrip)
- Severe constriction of the articulators through which the air passes
- (air continues)
Affricate (manner descrip)
- phoneme begins like a stop and ends like a fricative
- ex: "ch" asin chair J'" as in juice
Nasal (manner descrip)
- Air flows through nasal cavity because velopharyngeal port is open and also air flows into the mouth
- ex: m, n, ng
Lateral (manner develp)
- Air is released on both sides of the tongue
- aka as a liquid
Rhotic (manner develop)
- Air exits the mouth with the tongue in either a bunched or turned-back position.
- aka as a liquid
Glides (manner develp)
- Produced by gradually changing the shape of the articulators
- A sound "glides" into another.
- ie" wine, yes (w, y)
- A consonant is either voiced or voiceless
- A sounds either uses laryngeal vibration or it doesn't
___% of the consonants are voiced or voiceless
- response occurs in the entire vocal tract
- includes nasals, liquids, and glides
- resonance occurs in a more limited area of vocal tract (oral)
- includes stops, fricatives, affricates
Description for /m/ would be...
voiced, bilabial, nasal
The description for /s/ would be...
voiceless, lingua-alveolar, fricative
PLACE of constriction in the vocal tract
- Front, central, back
- (where the tongue is)
DEGREE of constriction within the vocal tract
- High, mid, low
- (where tongue is)
Degree of lip rounding only pertains to...
high and mid back vowels
- A blend of 2 vowels within the same syllable
- ex: fail, foil
- The MOTOR act of producing a phoneme, requires neuromuscular coordination between the nervous system and the articulators
- (tongue, lips, etc)
- A knowledge of the sounds of the language and the rules that govern their production and combination (more rule based)
- ex: child tried to say cup and says cu
Customary production: (sanders)
point at which 50% of children used a sound correctly in two out of 3 word positions
Upper or outside limit of normalcy: (sanders)
90% of the children used each sound correctly in all 3 word positions
SODA (traditional analysis of disordered phonology/articulation)
replacing one sound with another sound. The substitution usually approximates the sound it replaces
- Sounds omitted from a word
- Usually a words final sound
- Imprecise production of airstream in some way.
- ex: lisps. son...thon
- Inappropiate insertion of a sound within a word
- ex: black.....balack
- 1.Serve to simplify the phonological system
- 2.They are NOT random errors
- 3. The use of processes is considered normal
- ie: cu for cup and pane for plane
Phonological processes have been applied to...
the speech patterns of older children w/delayed phonological development.
- Sound system is usually delayed, immature
- ex: 8 yr old uses 3 yr olds speech
There is a high percent of language impairment in children who have a phonological disorder (60%)
- Children with a history of otitis media are more likely to have a/p disorders
- Deaf speech has a distinct pattern (voicing and vowel errors)
- (motor speech dis)
- Due to neuromuscular impairment (stroke, tumor)
- can affect articulation, respiration, phonation, resonance(velum), swallowing)
- Results: imprecise articulatory movements
Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS)
Apraxia is the impairment in PROGRAMMING the speech mechanism to select, plan, organize, and initiate a motor pattern
- DAS is more controversial
- Damage likely to Broca's area
- Etiology is neurological, not from trauma
- Articulation errors due to structural deviations of palate, velum, lip, alveolar ridge
- more difficulty with "pressure" sounds such as stops and fricatives
- voice may be affected
- Nasal sounds are easy for them
- Malocclusions - upper and lower teeth arent aligned properly
- Teeth missing
- Lingual frenum too short - band under tongue
- -Ankyloglossia, tongue tie
- Microglossia(too large) Macroglossia(too small)
A child has an artic/phono disorder if...
- The error sound occurs frequently
- The sound on which an error is produced correctly by chil the same age
- The error sound is NOT found in the phoneme system of that persons dialect
Intellectual capacity (cognition)
Learning, perceiving, understanding, concept processing, appropriate responding
- Audition, tactile experiences, vision
- Perception involves discrimination, retention, retrieval
- Innate capacity to learn language
- (born with it)
Child has nervous system which is capable of allowing nurturing sociocommunicative interaction
All these capacities are dependent upon the________.
Communication begins at....
- Birth cry
- Eye gaze
- Random movements
Prelinguistic/Preverbal stage last from birth to about the ______ when ______ words appear
Communication occurs reciprocally between.....
caregiver/parent and newborn
How do parents establish this early from of communication?
Touching and talking to your child
Much of the early communication is _______on the part of the infant but it gradually emerges as _____ over time
In the PERLOCUTIONARY stage of development, Bonding or attachment is what?
First few months are spent attaching to parents, going through rituals such as turn-taking, action/gaze.
Laughter emerges when?
Gooing and cooing occurs when? and what does it signal?
- 2-3 months
- signals discomfort, pain and pleasure
In a 3 month, the myelin sheath developments how?
- Front to back of mouth (myelinization)
- The muscles of the oral cavity are better controlled
Infants produce sounds from every language, but the produce sounds from their own language when?
ILLOCUTIONARY stage of development is from _____ to ____
- 6-12 months ( no true words yet)
- modes for expression continue to be gestural and vocal
Child uses grasping or reaching to gain attention, then pairs it with vocalization until finally the child can use true words
Reduplicated babbling occurs at what age?
at 6-7 months the child produces what? and ____babies reduce their vocal play at this time.
- reconizable vowels and consonants
first word usually appears at what age?
8-12 months (the first birthday)
Nelson says that the____month is average for a babies first word.
and the range is ___ to ___months
- child is using conventional verbalizations to signal attention (first with then w/o gestures)
- (gestures go away and words stay)
By 18 months (toddler) they have a ____word range
the 14 grammatical morphemes are used around ______(age)
18-24 months....till 4-5 years
MLU is calculated by...
Adding the total # of morphemes and dividing by the total number of utterances
by 24 months, the child uses ___ to___words.
2-3 years of age, the child begins to...
- change topic
- begins code switching
- can follow commands
at 2-3 years of age, the childs expressive vocab is_______words.
At 5 years of age...
- can understand 3-part command
- understands concepts(time, present, future)
- can tell novel
At 5 years of age the childs expressive vocab is around_____words.
inability to understand or speak the language code as well as same age-peers.
What may be affected in language impairment?
- I want more juice
- I'm going for a ride
- Slow vocab growth
- Word finding problems
- talks about concrete things, not abstract
- ex: all small children are babies
- -All four legged animals are dogs
- Difficulty staying on topic
- May have a hard time initiating a convo
- may interrupt
- can't code switch
These language disorders can be...
Determining language delay....3 "ages"...
- Chronological age
- Mental age
- Language age
With normal children ___=_____=____
But with Language impairment children....____=_____
- CA=MA but CA and MA are NOT equal to LA
- (LA doesn't meet requirements)
A child with mental retardation....
LA and MA are less than CA
a child with an IQ below 70 is considered what?
Mental retardation's onset is before age____.
____% of the pop is mentally retarded
Causes of mental retardation
- Down syndrome
- Fragile X
- Neonatal distress
- Postnatal infections
- maternal infections during pregnancy
Down syndrome is also known as....
Fragile X is...
- most common in males
- anoxia, at birth (w/o oxygen)
- sometimes cord is wrapped around baby
- can happen at any age, but young is critical
Maternal infections during pregnancy
- chicken pox
- toxins and chemical
- brain diseases
__-____% of children with LD have an associated language disability
Other typical LD problems are...
Short attention span, distractability, poor memory, difficulty learning, lack of motor coordination
To have LD means you must be...
more ___than ____are affected
ADD or ADHD is characterized by ______and ____with some children experiencing hyperactivity, child is highly distractable (can't screen out important stimuli)
ADHD or ADD kids may have _____problems and may also have a _____ disability
Their language disabilities are usually in the area of______
Child may be managed ______ and behaviorally.
Most common medication for ADHD and ADD is...
There is no known cause for the LD
Idiopathics are are at high risk for______
experiencing Academic Failure
Interaction abilities and _______skills may seem socially inappropriate.
Uneven and ______ pattern of linguistic development
There are no sensory, intecllectual, motor , or social emotional deficits in...
Profound emotional and behavioral disorder is known as....
- persuasive development disorder (PDD)
- Unknown etiology
Milder end of the spectrum is..
for many years autism was rare: ____children per 10,000 live births
The rate of autism has increased with figures as high as ____ per 10,000
Boys out number girls ____ to ____
4 to 1
one in every ____are diagnosed with autism
between 25-60% of individuals with autism remain _______ throughout their life
The behaviors for autism must have been present before____ months
Traumatic brain injury
_____deficits include difficulties in perception, memory, reasoning, and problem solving.
____% of alcohol.drug exposed children may show communication disorders
Fetal exposure to crack cocaine
Symptoms seem to be hyperactivity, impulsivity, and learning and memory problems
select goals based on ______report
Begin working with ______ language deficits, if any and move toward _____ language deficits