ModernHistoryWW1

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
96392
Filename:
ModernHistoryWW1
Updated:
2011-08-08 05:41:36
Tags:
Modern History WW1
Folders:

Description:
Modern History WW1
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Reasons for Stalemate
    Expectations
    • · War of movement and manoeuvre, not positions
    • · Over by Christmas
  2. Reasons for Stalemate
    Schlieffen Plan
    • · Aimed to push through NE Belgium and Netherlands like a giant hammer-swing, towards the French Channel coast, then swing round and capture Paris, whilst holding off all possible French attacks in the east as a hinge of this swing.
    • · Modifications: Moltke weakened hammer-swing to strength hinge, didn’t go through Netherlands.
  3. Reasons for Stalemate
    S.Plan Failure
    • · Delays at Aachen and Liege gave French and Belgium time to mobilise
    • · Gave British time to get to Belgium
    • · Thrust through Belgium weakened > troops sent to hinge and Antwerp
    • · Russia mobilised more rapidly that expected
    • · Belgium resistance stronger than expected
    • · Ordered forces to swing east of Paris
    • · Battle of Marne halted advance
  4. Reasons for Stalemate
    Battle of Marne
    • · Saved France from defeat and ensured development of trench warfare
    • · Von Klucks army in trouble due to exposure of right flank as forces ordered to move east of Paris
    • · Germans retreated from Marne to Aisne due to arrival of British and Russian troops in Belgiums, British preparing to encircle clucks army.
    • · Commanders failed to see development of trench warfare and still believed war would end quickly
  5. Reasons for Stalemate
    Race to the Sea
    • · Aims to get around back of enemy’s forces, gain control of Channel ports
    • · Trench lines from Aisne northwards
  6. Reasons for Stalemate
    Plan Seventeen
    • · 5 armies concentrated along Franco-German border with aim to recapture Alsace-Lorraine
    • · British weren’t informs – no cooperation
    • · Relied upon rapid Russian movement in East
    • · Old-fashioned offensive, no deadly weapons
    • · Left Franco-Belgium border undefended
  7. Reasons for Stalemate
    Christmas 1914
    • · No mans land, sharing drinks, admiring photos, playing soccer
    • · Most cases started by Germans
    • · Men didn’t want to fight
    • · British commanders keen to prevent in future as friendships could jeopardise fighting
  8. The Nature of Trench Warfare
    The Trenches
    • · German trenches were concrete, up to 12m deep
    • · Supply compartments for ammunition
    • · Dugouts for men to sleep
    • · German officers – electricity and wallpaper
    • · Duckboards
    • · Barbed wire
    • · Complex system
  9. The Nature of Trench Warfare
    No-mans Land
    • · Deep craters
    • · Mud, heavy, rain, artillery bombardment
    • · Risk of sniper fire
    • · Trenches 8-10 kms or 50m apart, zigzagged
  10. The Nature of Trench Warfare
    Basics of Battle
    • · Careful planning, location, assembly of men, supplies, logistical support
    • · Impossible to keep secret so enemy would make similar preparationsGoing “over the top”
  11. The Nature of Trench Warefare
    Weaponry of World War I
    • · Rifle – range of 500m, trained soldier 15 rounds/min
    • · Machine gun – range 500-1000m, wipe out 1000s, +450 rounds/min
    • · Artillery – 75mm field run (8km range), 200mm gun (20km range) advantage of mobility, creeping barrages
    • · Other – grenades, flamethrowers (short range, duration), mortars (high trajectory, limited range)
    • · Aircraft – enemy positions, ineffective bombing, aerial dogfights
    • · Gas – fearful, real panic, cleared trenches, not reliable due to wind, chlorine, mustard, phosgene, chloropicrin, prussic
  12. Life in the Trenches
    Physical Discomfort
    • · Mud
    • · Rats
    • · Lice
    • · Hunger
    • · Smell
    • · Cold
  13. Life in the Trenches
    Psychological Effects
    • · Seeing death
    • · Madness
    • · Shell shock
    • o Authorities refused to recognise
    • o Differences in reactions – singing and laughter, motionless, trembling, moaning, coma, deaf and mute, seizures, semi-stupor, loss of reflexes, loss of memory
    • o Cowardice
  14. Life in the Trenches
    Medical Ailments
    • · Trench foot
    • · Gangrene
    • · Frostbite
    • · Meningitis
    • · Tuberculosis
    • · Venereal disease
    • · Gas gangrene
    • · Injury
  15. Attempts to Break the Stalemate
    Verdun, Feb-Nov 1916
    • · German aims: exhaust French, “bleed the French white” by taking prized Verdun
    • · French aims: protect Verdun due to symbolic importance
    • · Conditions: “meat grinder”, tragic cocktail of fog, smoke, confusion, carnage, and destruction, dogs, phosgene gas, flame throws
    • · Results: 10mil shells, 8 months, German failure
  16. Attempts to Break the Stalemate
    The Somme, July-Nov 1916
    • · Haig’s aims: relieve pressure on French at Verdun, prevent Germany from transferring troops to East to fight Russia, wear down Germans
    • · Haig’s aims (critics): Breakthrough
    • · Preparations: pre-battle artillery barrage, imaginary rehearsals, land cleared behind French lines, 1.6mil shells
    • · Battle: disaster! 60 000 Brit casualties on first day, 20 000 dead, quick German counter-attacks, failure of British tanks, although did scare Germans and lower morale
    • · Results: British failure
  17. Attempts to Break the Stalemate
    Passchendaele (Third Battle of Ypres) July-Nov 1917
    • · Haig’s aims: relieve French, capture Belgium ports, further wearing down of German army
    • · Haig’s aims according to Churchill: win war before Americans come
    • · Conditions: slimy corpse-filled swamps, infantry took 5hrs to cover 1 mile, supplies and ammunition taken by men and donkeys – collapsed, dozen bearers for one stretcher
    • · Battle: 260 000 – 400 000 casualties, Belgium ports not captures, allies gain territory
    • · Results: no opportunity for further advance, another bloody battle of attrition, military crime
  18. Attempts to Break the Stalemate
    Other Attempts
    • · Dardanelles Campaign: aim to knock Turkey out of war, get supplies to Russia, troops soon evacuated, total failure
    • · Salonika Landing: aim to assist Serbia, force defeated but clung to Salonika, base eventually used for successful invasion of Bulgaria
    • · Middle Eastern Campaign: attacked Turkish forces, not successful till late 1917 when Baghdad and Jerusalem were captured
    • · Eastern Front: massive Russian defeats at Tannenburg and Masurian Lakes, mutiny, desertion, incompetence, poor supplies, government corruption > collapse of Russian army
    • · Allied Blockade: major German problems, significant strains and shortages > major factor in Germanys demise
    • · German unrestricted submarine warfare: aim to deny Britain of essential foods and raw material imports > serious shortages. Brought US onto Allies side (German plan??)
    • · Italian Front: aim to gain territory, long bloody campaign, considerable losses but little impact on outcome of war
    • · Entry of Romania: quickly succumbed to Central Powers forces
    • · Papal Peace Note: Pope Benedict XV, acted out of humanitarian concerns and fear for future Catholicism, calls for reduction of arms, evacuation of occupied territory, freedom of seas, arbitration of industrial disputes, rejection of war indemnities, rejected!
    • · International Women’s Party: ignored
    • · Socialist Efforts: socialist conference > failure (Allied govts. Refused passports)
    • · Wilson’s Efforts: universal association of nations, conference of peace, “peace without victory”, end to “entangling alliances”, note to Germany on peace views, Fourteen Points on after war peace
  19. Changing Attitudes of Allied and German Soldiers to the War
    Early Response
    • · Massive widespread enthusiasm, adventure, expected rapid victory
    • · Propaganda – Kitchener “I want YOU” poster, evil Germany/innocent peace-loving Belgium, atrocity
    • · 1914 was a different world – patriotism, love of empire, respect for king, “duty”, paternal respect, “doing ones bit”
    • · Economics – opportunity for regular paying job during years of rising unemployment and industrial disputes
    • · Influence of Women – general support, suffragette movement involved, desired to impress
    • · Peer pressure – you’ve got to be in it, the whole football team is joining up, are you too scared, the girls love a fella in uniform
    • · Ignorance – no realisation of modern warfare, glorious colonial conflicts, no idea of trenches, gas, shell shock, suicidal war of attrition
  20. Changing Attitudes of Allied and German Soldiers to the War
    Appearance of Opposition
    • · Attitudes of generals – lack of compassion, never visited front
    • · Reality of trench life – spirit of mateship, callousness, barbarity, just about staying alive, getting home, looking after pals
    • · Casualties – enormous loss of life, never ending list of wounded
    • · Futility of war – senseless and massive slaughter, carnage, disillusionment, war-weariness, hatred of Germany lessening (know troops are going through the same)
  21. Changing Attitudes of Allied and German Soldiers to the War
    Unrest in German Armed Forces
    • · Food shortages
    • · War weariness
    • · Trenches – rats, water
    • · Loss of life
    • · Knowledge of home front falling apart – starvation, inequalities, black-market
  22. Changing Attitudes of Allied and German Soldiers to the War
    German Revolution
    • · Workers and soldiers councils
    • · Kaiser forced to abdicate
    • · Republic declared
    • · Socialist government
  23. Total War
    What is Total War
    • · Development of govt. control of production, communication and marketing
    • · Govt. taking on new functions
    • · Mobilisation of unused resources (e.g female labour)
    • · Govt. control of resource allocation
    • · Non-economic areas: conscription, propaganda, censorship, security
  24. Total War
    German War Organization
    • · Role of Walter Rathenau. – war organization, war raw material department, war production
    • · Many ersatz (substitute) goods invented
    • · Raw material companies to allocate to manufacturers
    • · British naval blockade severely hurt German economy, took away 80% of export market
    • · Transport problems – 400 000 horses killed, 500 000 died, motorised transport, rubber and oil shortages
    • · Shortages – govt. agencies established, imperial grain office, control of grain and milling, controlled supplies, rationing, laws and restrictions
    • · Govt. production plants
    • · Supreme War Office, Patriotic Auxiliary War, Weapons and Munitions Procurement Agency
    • · Historians impressed by German ability to remain in war for so long due to failure of S.Plan, onset of war of attrition, economic and military assistance needed by allies, combined strength of enemies, crippling Brit. blockade, acute shortages
  25. Total War
    Financing the War-Germany
    • · Leadership and energy contributed to victory
    • · Munitions minister
    • · Minister of war
    • · Administrative ability
    • · Negotiation skills
    • · Fertile and inventive brain
    • · Great oratorical powers
    • · Wonderful sense of political timing
  26. Total War
    Effectiveness of Germany’s Organisation for Total War
    • · Positive
    • o Kept massive war machine going in face of obstacles
    • o Admired by future govts.
    • o Soldiers well supplied
    • o No munitions crisis
    • o War socialism
    • · Negative
    • o Irresponsible finance
    • o Indebtness and inflation
    • o Industrial o/put fell
  27. Total War
    Britain and Total War
  28. · Slower to move to total war due to nature of British society
    • o Parliamentary democracy
    • o Free press and strong unions
    • o No tradition of conscription
    • o No exalted status of military
    • · Delayed Total War due to ‘Business as usual’
    • o Belief it would be over quickly
    • o Assumed market economy could handle increase in demand
    • § Handed out lucrative contracts to private firms
    • · Misunderstanding of war
    • o Nature of war
    • o Belief in rapid war
    • o Of movement, not positions
    • o No need for much artillery
  29. Total War
    Government Controls - Britain
  30. · Defence of the Realm Act
    • o Right to question/imprison suspects
    • · Dora control increase
    • o Kite flying and feeding birds illegal
    • o Official permit to by binoculars
    • · Control over goods
    • · Control over drinking habits > daylight savings limits pub hours
    • · Censorship, govt. info campaigns
    • · Food
    • o Restrictions due to poor harvest, panic buying, sub campaign
    • o Voluntary restrictions
    • o Wheat stocks fell > bread economy campaign
    • o Intervention in employer-union relations to avoid strikes
  31. Total War
    Munitions-Britain
  32. · Munitions of War Act
    • · Subsidies to private firms
    • · Govt factories and shipyards
    • · Pte companies urged to amalgamate
    • · R&D on unprecedented scale
    • · Lloyd George kept union on side and lessened danger of strike action by
    • o Limiting union rules
    • o Semi-skilled in munitions factories
    • o Dilution, but only for duration of war
    • o Urged employers to pay bonuses
    • o Encouraged collective pay bargaining
    • o Controlled food prices
    • o Rent Restrictions Bill
    • o Supported awards
    • o Set up tribunals
    • · Still did not let workers have it all their way
    • o Fines/imprisonment for lateness, absenteeism
    • o Increased hours (daylight saving)
    • o Leisure activities curtailed
    • o Restrictions on where people could work
  33. Total War
    Financing the War-Britain
  34. · War savings certificates (bonds)
    • · Increased tax
    • · Excess profits duty rose
    • · Indirect taxes
    • · Sold o/seas investments
    • · Massive borrowing (US)
  35. Total War
    Lloyd George: An Assessment
    • · Leadership and energy contributed to victory
    • · Munitions minister
    • · Minister of war
    • · Administrative ability
    • · Negotiation skills
    • · Fertile and inventive brain
    • · Great oratorical powers
    • · Wonderful sense of political timing
  36. Recruitment, Conscription, Censorship and Propaganda in Britain
    Early Recruitment Efforts
    • · Young men eager to volunteer
    • · Romantic ideas of adventure/excitement
    • · Acceptance of ones duty to defend to king/country/empire
    • · Escape from dreary existence
    • · First full time job
  37. Recruitment, Conscription, Censorship and Propaganda in Britain
    Conscription
    • · 1914 – competition to enter, elite, 1.34 mil men
    • · 1915 – physical standards gradually reduced, 22000/week, Derby Scheme = failure by Dec
    • · 1916 – First Military Service Act called up all single men and childless widows, Second Military Service Act made all men liable for service
  38. Recruitment, Conscription, Censorship and Propaganda in Britain
    Conscientious Objectors
    • · Would not submit to conscription due to religious belief or moral revulsion
    • · Slackers, cowards, traitors, treated severely
    • · Absolutist – those who refused to have anything to do with the army
  39. Recruitment, Conscription, Censorship and Propaganda in Britain
    Censorship and Propaganda
    • · Propaganda – deliberate presentation of a one-sided view
    • · Aims
    • o Participation
    • - Promote volunteer enlistment
    • - Encourage US entry
    • - Promote info gathering
    • - Encourage women to take on war work
    • - Participate in war time occupations
    • o Attitudes to the enemy
    • - Attack opponents of war
    • - Attack activities by strikers
    • - Create hatred for enemy
    • o Other attitudes
    • - Maintain morale in face of casualties
    • - Maintain willingness to sacrafice
    • - Gain support of neutral states
    • - Encourage criticism of conchies
    • - Create awareness of spy activity
    • - Justify Britains position
    • - Create sympathy for Belgium
    • o Resources and funds
    • - Conservation of scarce resources
    • - Promote subscription to war loans
    • - Purchase of war bonds
    • · Methods
    • o Stereotypes
    • - Germans = savage, barbarians
    • - Rape, murder
    • - Throw babies in air for bayonet practise
    • o Names
    • - Proper names not used
    • - Huns, Boche, the enemy
    • o Selection
    • - Selective in material
    • - Censorship
    • - Defeats ignored
    • - Good enemy incidents ignored
    • o Assertion
    • - Strong assertations – don’t need to be proven or backed up
    • o Repetition
    • - More frequent lies, more believed
    • - Gradually seeps into consciousness
    • o Lies
    • - Victories concocted
    • - German atrocity invented
    • · Propaganda run by Secret War Propaganda Bureau, Department of Information (1917), Ministry of Information (1918)
  40. Recruitment, Conscription, Censorship and Propaganda in Germany
    Recruitment and Conscription
    • · Enormous enthusiasm
    • · Keen due to
    • o Ignorance
    • o Adventure
    • o Excitement
    • o Patriotic duty
    • o Peer pressure
    • o Impress women
    • o Full time job
  41. Recruitment, Conscription, Censorship and Propaganda in Germany
    Propaganda
    • · Anti-British stance
    • o No need to promote recruitment
    • o England’s fault that you cant make gingerbread, etc (blockade)
    • o Hatred
    • o “God punish England”
    • o Unite in hatred
    • · Defensive tone
    • o Justify actions of govt
    • o Defensive response to British/French aggression
    • o Encirclements, destruction
    • o German soldiers – heroes, defending fatherland
    • o Forced to draw the sword
    • o “Act in self defence”
    • · Ineffective due to
    • o Defence mixed with racial prejudice
    • o Didn’t connect with ordinary citizens
    • - Used elitist figures and intellectuals
    • o Had tougher job in justifying cause as they were more at fault and had invaded neutral Belgium
    • o Disrespect for international laws
    • o Atrocities towards Belgium
  42. Britain Response to War
    Early Response
    • Pride
    • Nationalism
  43. Britain Response to War
    The Appearance of Opposition
    • · Reasons:
    • o Troops sickened by continual carnage
    • o Growing war weariness at home due to casualties, shortages
    • o Zeppelin raids and attacks – bringing war home
    • o Unrestricted submarine warfare campaign – severe shortages
    • o Rationing
    • o Lack of compassion from generals
  44. Britain Response to War
    Growth of Opposition
    • · Groups and individuals
    • o Union of Democratic Control
    • o Charles Trevelyan
    • o Bertrand Russell
    • · Arguments
    • o British workers had no business killing German workers
    • o Opposed massive amounts of money being wasted
    • o Against conscription
    • · How did Lloyd George handle conchies
    • o Dealt with mildly
    • o Allowed some exemption from armed forces
    • o Non-combatant roles
    • o 71 dies in prison – mistreatment and tortue
    • o Lloyd George’s handling of industrial unrest
    • - With kid gloves
    • - Strikes – protest against pressure of war
    • - Attempted to make workers partners of govt
    • - Wages increased
    • - Women promised vote
  45. Britain Response to War
    Ireland and the War
    • · All wanted independence
    • · On verge of civil war
    • · 1916 Easter Rising – saw rebels as traitors as many had family fighting for British army
  46. Britain Response to War
    Reasons for Britains Low Anti-War Dissent
    • · Lloyd George’s govt
    • o Great attention to needs of workers on home front
    • § :. more cooperation from organised labour
    • · Economic strain was far less due to navy’s ability to maintain adequate food supplies
    • · Result of highly disciplined industrial labour force
    • o Strong class based nature of society (JM Winter)
    • · British propaganda very effective in maintaining genuine support for justice of allied cause
  47. Germany Response to War
    Growth of Opposition
    • · Deterioration of working conditions and growing demands on workers
    • · Longevity of war
    • · Endless casualties
    • · Apparent futility
    • · Shortages in everything, decreasing quality
    • o Scavenging on streets
    • o Coal, light economised
    • · War time inflation was rampant
    • o Lower real wages > lower living standards
    • · Men called off no matter what health
    • · No spirit left for opposition
  48. Germany Response to War
    The Strike Movement
    • · 1916 – anti-war protests, socialist arrests
    • · 1917 – April 300 000 on strike, violent disturbances, 562 strikes with 668 000 workers
    • · 1918 – Jan 1 mil on strike, martial law, ringleaders given frontline duties
  49. Germany Response to War
    Wartime Politics and Dissent
    • · 1916 – cracks in political unity, socialist disputes against budget, want reform
    • · 1917 – deputies demanding major constitutional changes, SPD radicals expelled, formed Independent German Socialist Democratic Party, victory no longer possible, Peace Revolution proposed, Kaiser promised franchise, politics hopelessly polarised
  50. Germany Response to War
    Revolution
    • · 1916 – military dictatorship under Ludendorff and Hindenburg
    • · 1918 – Clear that war was lost, power to civilian govt, Oct – Germany dismissed, Nov – Kaiser abdicated, fled, Republic declared
  51. The Impact of the War on Women’s Lives and Experiences in Britain
    Women and the Munitions Industry
    • · July 1914 – 3.22 million; Jan 1918 – 4.8 million in workforce
    • · 1914 – 212 000 in munitions
    • · 1918 – 950 000 in munitions
    • · Soldiers lives depended on them
    • · Over 200 killed due to explosions, TNC poisoning (yellow tinge on skin)
    • · Pay 2 or 3 times that of domestic work
    • · “Anyone who limits output is a traitor to sweethearts, husbands and brothers fighting
  52. The Impact of the War on Women’s Lives and Experiences in Britain
    Munitions Factories and in the Armed Forces
    • · Voluntary – free buffets, tea parties, car trips for soldiers, concerts and sales to raise funds
    • · Mufflers, mittens, socks, hospital bags, bandages, dressings, books, cigarettes, tobacco
    • · Nursing (originally not accepted by govt)
    • · Agricultural production – Women’s Land Army (+1600)
    • · Blacksmiths, gravediggers, managers, ambulance drivers, tram drivers, ticket collectors, rail guards, banks, clerks, tellers
    • · NOT train drivers, iron/steel industry, ship building, accounting, architecture
  53. The Impact of the War on Women’s Lives and Experiences in Britain
    Women and Trade Unions
    • · Male union officials not keen on female participation
    • o Disapproved of dilution
    • o Feared unskilled women would damage status of skilled workers
    • o Took lesser pay for granted – fought attempts at equal pay
    • o Took for granted that once war was over women would return to the home
    • · Workforce gains by women by 1918
    • o 383 trade unions with female members
    • o 36 unions for women only
    • o Stimulated women’s consciousness of their value
  54. The Impact of the War on Women’s Lives and Experiences in Britain
    The War and Female Suffrage
    • · Suffragettes – suspended campaign, threw selves into effort, encouraged men to enlist, sought internment of aliens, demanded harsh treatment of conchies, encouraged women into munitions
    • · Women received vote because of efforts
    • o Played vital role, :. rewarded
    • · Women did not receive vote because of efforts
    • o Factors preventing vote (e.g WSPU violence, opposition of PM Asquith) were removed
    • o Coalition govt (1916 >) :. female suffrage was no longer a party issue
    • o Worldwide trend
    • o Only 30+ householders or wives of householders given vote – middle class, married, not young where as war work done by working class, single, young
  55. The Impact of the War on Women’s Lives and Experiences in Britain
    The Social Impact of the War on Women
    • · Major impact on middle class
    • o Freed from restraints of home
    • o More literate :. accounts into print (not working class)
    • · To later generations it appeared that war had far greater impact on women’s lives due to
    • o Media played up impact
    • o Accounts of middle class women, not of working class
    • · In reality, little changed for working class
    • · Change was not long lasting and significant – second class status not seriously challenged for 50 yrs
    • · Revolutionary effect on lives and perception was greatly overplayed, no real evidence
  56. American Entry and Russian Withdrawal
    Reasons for American Entry
    • · Up to 1916 – neutrality, non-involvement, avoid European conflicts
    • · Reasons for entry
    • o German and Austrian behaviour in the United States
    • - Passport frauds
    • - Instigated strikes
    • - Bombs manufactured for destruction of factories and ships
    • o The Zimmermann Telegram
    • - German foreign minister wrote to German minister in Mexico suggesting joint action against the US – intercepted by British intelligence
    • o German unrestricted submarine warfare
    • - 124 American lives lost on Lusitania
    • - American tanker Gulflight was sunk
    • - Loss of American lives
    • - Warfare against mankind
  57. American Entry and Russian Withdrawal
    Impact of American Entry into the War
    • · Early in the war allies relied on US industry to maintain their war effort – munitions, capital, iron, steel
    • · Allied impact
    • o Morale jumped up, joyous
    • o Feeling of victory
    • o Fresh troops
    • · German impact
    • o Had to face might of worlds strongest economy
    • o No fresh men
    • o Lowered morale
    • · Economic
    • o No longer reliant on imports – British provided for US troops
    • · Impact on naval warfare
    • o Convoy system
    • - Troops and supplies safely cross Atlantic
    • o Sub chasers
    • o Planes/blimps reporting on U-boats
    • o Colossal mine barrage
    • · Military impact
    • o Mid 1918 US forces became fully involved
    • o Held back final surges of Ludendorff
    • o Second battle of the Marne
    • o Destroyed St Mihiel salient
    • o Meuse-Argonne Battle
    • o Broke Hindenburg Line
  58. American Entry and Russian Withdrawal
    Russia in 1917
    • · Early 1917 – Russian army in state of collapse, lack of supplies, food, ammunition, mutiny, desertion
    • · March – Tsar forces lost control of capital, Tsar abdicates, faced with social, economic, and political breakdown, loss of military support, provisional govt.
    • · April – Lenin calls for end to war, land for peasants
    • · July – July days episode – Bolsheviks tried and failed to seize power, Lenin flees to Finland
    • · August – attempted coup by General Kornilov, PM Kerensky defens his govt using Bolshevik troops, Bolsheviks popularity gained majorities
    • · October – Bolshevik decision to overthrow govt, organised by Trotsky. Lenin returns
    • · November – Bolshevik Red Guards took control of key points of the capital and seized power in the name of Congress of Soviets
  59. American Entry and Russian Withdrawal
    Treaty of Brest Litovsk
    • · March 1918
    • · End of war needed in order to retain power and build “socialist society”
  60. 1918 Offensive and Counteroffensive Ludendorff’s Decision
    The German Attack
    • · Operation Michael
    • o Picardy – 3800 casualties, 21 000 prisoners
    • o Late April – 1000 guns, 100 000 prisoners, more land gained than all allied attacks
    • o Continued to advance, defeated by America
    • o Fairly successful although the presence of US troops was beginning to be felt
    • · German offensive was beginning to weaken by late July
    • o Suffered a mil casualties
    • o Lacking reserves and supplies
    • o Facing fresh US forces
    • o Losses Ludendorff could not replace
  61. 1918 Offensive and Counteroffensive Ludendorff’s Decision
    Allied Counteroffensive
    • · Aug-Nov 1918
    • · German moral low
    • · 8th Aug Germanys “Black Day”
    • · Very successful, took by surprise
    • · Saved Paris
    • · Put enemy into position so they were forced to surrender
    • · Caught many prisoners, weakening enemy
    • · German economy could not afford to retaliate – could not produce enough tanks to match
    • · Allies had fresh men, almost inexhaustible reserves
    • · Ludendorff speech to Reichstag – loss due to tanks and US troops, not his fault. We have lost
  62. American Entry and Russian Withdrawal
    Impact of Russian Withdrawal from the War
    • · Germany no longer had to worry about a war on two fronts – given the opportunity t break through before the Americans arrive
    • · No extra troops on West as so many still needed to occupy territorial gains in Russia
    • · Sure of victory
  63. The End of the War
    Reasons for Allied Victory and German Collapse
    • · Allied advantages in war of attrition
    • o Allied blockade
    • - Essential imports
    • - Enormous hardships
    • - Severe limits
    • - Strains on home front
    • o Entry of the US
    • - Gamble of submarine campaign failed
    • - German morale fell, allied lifted
    • o Strains on the German home front
    • - Rationing
    • - Inflation
    • - Shortages
    • - Evidence of inequality
    • - Major strikes
    • o Failure of the S.Plan
    • - Had to face two front war
    • - Resources stretched
    • o Allied economic and military superiority
    • - British, French, Russia, US and minor powers
    • - Germany and 3 minor powers
    • · Factors leading to rapid German collapse
    • o Exhaustion of German army
    • - Threw all they could at allies in Spring Offensive
    • - No reserves
    • - Industry near collapse
    • o Arrival of Americans
    • - Fresh troops
    • - New strategies (naval)
    • - Significant part in counteroffensive
    • o Ludendorff’s role
    • - Failure to develop tank warfare
    • - No plan B if S.Offensive failed
    • - Buffalo analogy
    • - Home front violence, mutiny, revolution
    • o Improved Allied generalship
    • - Junior officers who gained experience in the field
    • - Learnt lessons
    • - Tanks
  64. The End of the War
    Historians say:
    • · Cawood and McKinnon-Bell
    • o Demands on society and economy
    • - Total war challenge ultimately to great to overcome
    • o Germany exhausted
    • · Hagan
    • o German govt unsuccessful in convincing people of the worthwhile cause
    • · Grant and Temperley
    • o British sea power – naval blockade
    • o Morale
    • · Carr
    • o No man power to succeed S.Offensive
    • o ½ million men still in East
    • o American reinforcements
    • · Cosgrove and Kreiss
    • o Allied propaganda
    • - Boosted confidence
    • - Stimulating patriotism
    • - Spreading hatred
    • - Created despair among enemy
    • · Me
    • o America
    • - Troops
    • - Supplies
    • - Strategy
    • - Morale
  65. The Big Three and the Treaty of Versailles
    Background to the Peace Conference
    • · Problems facing the peacemakers
    • o The human dimension
    • - 10mil deaths
    • - 6mil Spanish flu
    • - Millions wounded, amputees
    • - Psychological effects
    • - Prisoners of War, Refugees
    • - Starvation
    • - Lack of medical supplies
    • - Minds manipulated by propaganda
    • o The peacemakers hands were tied
    • - Decisions and promises made that limited delegations
    • - People seized territory, set up govts
    • - Treaties promised land after war
    • o Functioning of the conference
    • - Begun soon after war – emotion and hatred still fresh
    • - Paris – ill advised
    • - Clemenceau had French and English speaking advantage
    • - Dawdling on small aspects
    • - Hasty decisions
    • - Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Wilson dominated
    • o The economic dimension
    • - European economy in point of collapse
    • - Unemployment
    • - Inflation
    • - Indebted
    • o The fear of communism
    • - Threat of spread from Russia
    • - Communist parties formed
  66. The Big Three and the Treaty of Versailles
    Wilson’s Aims at Paris Peace Conference
    • · National self-determination
    • o If European people are granted their national self-determination many of the causes of tension will be removed
    • · Open covenants of peace
    • o Break tradition of secretive diplomacy
    • · Colonial claims
    • o Firmly opposed to the imposition of imperial rule.
    • o Not all nations ready to govern themselves
    • o Imperialism and nationalism led to great war
    • · Internationalism
    • o Idea that nations will put the common international good before their own selfish national ambitions
    • o Need to look beyond narrow national concerns
    • · League of Nations
    • o All countries can bring their grievances
    • o Differences can be discussed and arbitrated upon internationally
  67. The Big Three and the Treaty of Versailles
    Wilson’s Role at Versailles
    • · Ultimately failed
    • o Inexperienced at diplomacy
    • o Little understanding of European politics and no idea what war meant to Britain and France
    • o Hadn’t visited battle fields
    • o Obstinate, arrogant, unwilling to bend
    • o Paradoxical position
  68. The Big Three and the Treaty of Versailles
    Clemenceau’s Aims at Paris Peace Conference
    • · Desire for security
    • o Never again must Germany be allowed to invade France
    • o Break the German war machine
    • o Break the back of the German economy
    • · Desire for compensation
    • o Germany pay for reconstruction
    • o Severe reparation repayments
    • o Regain Alsace-Lorraine and have Rhineland between us
    • · Desire to rebuild France
    • o Destroyed 300 000 houses, textile mills, factory machinery
    • o Flooded mines
    • o 1000kms of rail track
    • o +1mil livestock
    • · Attitude towards Wilson
    • o Sentimental internationalist
    • o Luxury of being 1000s km away from danger
    • o Isolated and naïve
  69. The Big Three and the Treaty of Versailles
    Clemenceau’s Role at Paris
    • · Failed in his goal to achieve French security
    • o Wilson and Lloyd George would not allow separation of Rhineland
    • o Collapse of Anglo-American guarantee
  70. The Big Three and the Treaty of Versailles
    Lloyd George’s Aims at Peace Conference
    • · Balancing act
    • o Satisfy population and create lasting peace
    • · Overriding concerns
    • o Expected punishment of Germany
    • o “Hang the Kaiser”
    • o “Make the Germans pay”
    • o “Squeeze Germany till the pips squeak”
  71. The Treaty of Versailles
    • · Colonial provisions
    • o Germany unworthy of colonial provisions – given to other powers as mandates for statehoods
    • · War guilt
    • o Blamed Germany for war and all damage
    • o Totally humiliating
    • o Clause 231
    • · Reparations
    • o Reparations Commission
    • o 28 April 1921 – US$40 billion
    • o Ultimatum – pay or allies will occupy industrial Ruhr area
    • § Impossible to pay – loan from London needed
    • § Gradually scaled down
    • § Ended in 1932 (height of Depression)
    • § AJP Taylor – kept passions of war alive (French swindled, Germans robbed)
    • §
    • · Economic provisions
    • o Massive reparations to Allies
    • o Machinery locomotives and rolling stock to France and Belgium
    • o Coal to Allies
    • · Military provisions
    • o Army only allowed 100 000 people
    • o No tanks or heavy artillery
    • o No air force
    • o Reduced navy
    • o No submarines
    • o No ships over 16 256 tonnes, six battleships of 10 160 tonnes, 6 light cruisers, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats
    • o Helgoland naval base destroyed
    • · Territorial provisions
    • o Losses: Eupen, Malmedy, North Schleswig, Port of Memel, Danzig, Posen, Trappau, Alsace-Lorraine, Saar region

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview