OTC - N/V, Diarrhea, Constipation

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OTC - N/V, Diarrhea, Constipation
2011-08-08 16:52:33
OTC Diarrhea Constipation

OTC - N/V, Diarrhea, Constipation
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  1. What are the exclusions for self treatment of Nausea/vomiting?
    • Lactation
    • Suspected food poisoning
    • Severe abdominal pain
    • Blood in vomit
    • Stiff neck
    • Recent head trauma
    • Glaucoma, BPH, Chronic respiratory distress
    • Yellow skin
    • Dehydration in children
  2. What are the exclusions for self-treatment of diarrhea?
    • < 6mo old
    • severe dehydration
    • > 6mo with persistent fever > 102.2
    • Blood, pus, mucus in stool
    • > 48h duration
    • severe abdominal pain
    • Risks for complications (DM, CVD/renal disease, Cancer tx, Immunocompromise, pregnancy)
    • suspected protozoal infection
  3. What are the exclusions for self-treatment of constipation?
    • sudden changes in stool
    • recent weight loss
    • abdominal pain, N/V (appendicitis sx)
    • blood in stool
    • painful anal or rectal conditions
  4. What is the MOA of antacids for nausea of overindulgence?
    increase pH by acid neutralization
  5. What is the MOA of H2 antagonists for nausea of overindulgence?
    • compete with H2 at receptor sites
    • decreased acid secretion
  6. What is the MOA of PPIs for nausea of overindulgence?
    shut down acid pumps
  7. What is the MOA of bismuth for nausea of overindulgence?
  8. What is the MOA of phosphorated carbohydrate solution for nausea of overindulgence?
    adjusts pHdirect action which decreases gastric emptying and smooth muscle contractions
  9. What are the antihistamines used to treat nausea from motion sickness?
    • meclizine (Antivert)
    • diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
    • cyclizine (Merizine)
  10. When should antihistamines be taken for treatment of nausea from motion sickness?
    30-60 min prior to travel
  11. What is the treatment for nausea attributed to pregnancy?
    • Dietary changes
    • Fresh air
    • Avoiding unpleasant scents
    • Accupressure/acustimulation
    • Antihistamines (severe cases only)
    • Pyridoxine (B6) (2nd to non-drug tx)
  12. What are the tx for diarrhea?
    • loperamide (Imodium)
    • bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol), (Maalox), (Kaopectate)
    • lactase enzymes
  13. What are the age restrictions for loperamide tx for diarrhea?
    < 6yo
  14. What are the age restrictions for bismuth tx for diarrhea?
    12 and older only
  15. What are the SE of loperamide?
    • dizziness
    • constipation
    • abdominal pain
  16. What are the SE of bismuth?
    • tinnitus
    • Reye's syndrome
    • gout attacks
    • black stool
    • black tongue
  17. What are the six (6) tx options for constipation?
    • bulk-forming laxatives
    • emollient
    • lubricant
    • saline laxatives
    • hyper-osmotic agents
    • stimulants
  18. MOA of bulk-forming laxatives used for constipation
    Cause stool to absorb water and swell stimulating peristalsis & defecation
  19. What are three (3) the bulk-forming laxatives used for constipation?
    • methylcellulose (Citrucel)
    • polycarbophil
    • psyllium (Metamucil)
  20. What are the emollients used for constipation?
    docusate (Colace)
  21. MOA for lubricant laxative used for constipation
    Lubricant fecal mass and slows absorption of water from fecal mass
  22. What are the lubricants used for constipation?
    mineral oil
  23. What is the MOA of saline laxatives used for constipation?
    Increase the osmotic pressure within the intestinal tract to cause more water to enter the intestines
  24. What are the four (4) saline laxatives used for constipation?
    • magnesium citrate (Citroma)
    • magnesium sulfate
    • MOM (milk of magnesia)
    • sodium phosphate (Fleet Enema)
  25. What are the MOA of hyperosmotics agents used to prevent constipation?
    Increase fecal water content
  26. What are the three (3) hyper-osmotic agents used for constipation?
    • Glycerin
    • Miralax
    • Golytely
  27. What is the MOA of stimulants used for constipation?
    Increases the peristalsis via the intestine nerve stimulation
  28. What are the three (3) stimulant agents used for constipation?
    • sennosides (Senna)
    • bisacodyl (Dulcolax)
    • castor oil
  29. Which agents used for constipation should not be used in kids < 6yo?
    • methylcellulose
    • polycarbophil
    • psyllium
    • docusate
    • mineral oil
  30. What is the DOC for constipation in long-term opiate users?
    stimulants (senna, bisacodyl)
  31. What is the best agent to use for constipation in pregnancy?
    docusate (Colace)