TPR MCAT Organic Chemistry CH 4

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  1. How are amides formed?
    acid chloride + 1ry or 2ry amine in the precense of pyridine solvent
  2. how are primary, secondary and tertiary amines formed? what type of reaction is this?
    • Ammonia + 1)alkyl halide 2) NaOH
    • SN2 reaction with inversion of configuration

    to make react product subsequently in the same manner to make 2ary, and 3ry amines

    • so NH3+R-X > RNH2 (in NaOH)
    • RNH2 + R-X > R2NH2 etc.
  3. What is product of an amide + Nitrous acid?
    carboxylic acid + Nitrogen gas.
  4. What is a hoffman elimination?
    How is it performed?
    what products are formed?
    The elimination of a carbonyl group from an amide.

    amide is reacted with NaOH, Br2 in H2O

    the product is an amine + CO2 (g)

    RCONH2 >(NaOH, Br2 in water)> R-NH2 + CO2 (g)
  5. What do electron withdrawing groups do to arylamides?
    What are some electron donating groups?
    • Decrease basisity
    • -Cl, -NO2, -CN
  6. What do electron donating groups do to arylamines?

    What are some of these groups?
    Increase basisity

    -CH3, -NH2, -OCH3
  7. How are aldehydes and ketones made?
    Oxydation of 1ry or 2ary alcohols with PCC or O3, CrO3, or KMNO4
  8. how are alcohols made from ketones or aldehydes?
    reduction of ketones or aldehydes with strong reducing agents like NaBH4 or LiAlH4
  9. How are acetals made?
    reacting an aldehyde or ketone with 2eq of alcohol in acid
  10. what is acetal overal reaction?
    carbonyl d-bond gets replaced by to OR bonds to the 2eqs of alcohol
  11. How are imines formed?
    reacting aldehydes or ketones with 1ry or 2dary imines in precense of buffer.
  12. what is imine overal reaction?
    Carbonyl d-bond gets replaced by d-bond to Nitrogen, which retains alkyl substituents from original amine
  13. What are aldol condensations used for?
    to elongate molecules making carbon-carbon bonds
  14. overal aldol condensation reaction

    what are parent compounds?

    What is the product?
    d-bond of one of first carbonyl splits and bonds to an OH on one side, and to alpha carbon of other carbonyl on the other side.

    Parent compounds are two carbonyls

    Product: Beta-hydroxaldehyde
  15. What is the product of an aldol condensation dehydration?

    How is it carried out?
    adding heat

    product is: alpha,Beta-unsaturated carbonyl
  16. What is the overal addition reaction to alpha, Beta-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds?
    Acid catalized addition of a nucleophile to the unsaturated B carbon.
Card Set
TPR MCAT Organic Chemistry CH 4
This file contains formulas and stuff that we need to know from TPR hyperlearning books, Bio sciences review, Organic Chem ch4
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