Anatomy Bones

Card Set Information

Author:
Brytelot
ID:
9646
Filename:
Anatomy Bones
Updated:
2010-03-08 16:55:17
Tags:
ANATOMY BONES
Folders:

Description:
ANATOMY FLASHCARDS
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Brytelot on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Hyaline cartilages
    Provide support, flexibility, and resilienceMost abundant type
  2. Elastic cartilages
    Similar to hyaline cartilages, but contain elastic fibers
  3. Fibrocartilages
    Collagen fibers—have great tensile strength
  4. Skeletal Cartilages
    Contain no blood vessels or nerves

    Surrounded by perichondrium

    contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery to cartilage via diffusion
  5. There are two main catagories in the Skeletal system
    Axial skeleton


    Appendicular skeleton
  6. Classification of Bones by Shape
    Long bonesLonger than they are wide

    Short bonesCube-shaped bones (in wrist and ankle)

    Sesamoid bones (within tendons, e.g., patella)Flat bonesThin, flat, slightly curved

    Irregular bonesComplicated shapes
  7. Function of Bones
    • StorageMinerals (calcium and phosphorus) and growth factors
    • Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) in marrow cavities
    • Triglyceride (energy) storage in bone cavities
  8. Structure of Long Bone
    • Diaphysis (shaft)Compact bone collar surrounds medullary (marrow) cavity
    • Medullary cavity in adults contains fat (yellow marrow)

    • Epiphyses
    • Expanded ends Spongy bone interior
    • Epiphyseal line (remnant of growth plate)
    • Articular (hyaline) cartilage on joint surfaces
  9. Membranes of the Bones

    PERIOSTEUM
    • Periosteum
    • Outer fibrous layer
    • Inner osteogenic layer
    • Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells
    • Osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells)
    • Osteogenic cells (stem cells
    • )Nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via nutrient foraminaSecured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers
  10. ENDOSTEUM
    • Endosteum
    • Delicate membrane on internal surfaces of spongy bone lining diaphysys
    • Also contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  11. Location of
    Hematopoietic Tissue
    Red Marrow
    • Red marrow cavities of adults
    • Trabecular cavities of the heads of the femur and humerus
    • Trabecular cavities of the diploë of flat bonesRed marrow of newborn infants
    • Medullary cavities and all spaces in spongy bone
  12. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF COMPACT BONE
    • Haversian system, or osteon—structural unit
    • LamellaeWeight-bearing
    • Column-like matrix tubesCentral (Haversian) canal
    • Contains blood vessels and nerves

    (CONTINUE ON NEXT CARD)
  13. COMPACT BONE

    Perforating (Volkmann’s) canals
    At right angles to the central canal
    Connects blood vessels and nerves of the periosteum and central canal
    Lacunae—small cavities that contain osteocytes
    Canaliculi—hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
  14. Trabeculae
    • Align along lines of stress
    • No osteons
    • Contain irregularly arranged lamellae, osteocytes, and canaliculi
    • Capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients
  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BONE
    • Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
    • Osteoid—organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts
    • Ground substance (proteoglycans, glycoproteins
    • Collagen fibersProvide tensile strength and flexibility
    • Hydroxyapatites- (mineral salts)65% of bone by mass
    • Mainly calcium phosphate crystals
    • Responsible for hardness and resistance to compression

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview