Anatomy and Physiology

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WheezingDemon
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96460
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Anatomy and Physiology
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2011-08-08 22:53:29
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anatomy physiology
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BIO 111: lecture slides 11, 13
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  1. endocrine system
    • consists of a group of glands that produce hormones
    • works with nervous system to control and coordinate all other body systems
    • affects body systems by chemical stimuli
  2. hormones
    • chemical messengers with regulatory effects on cells or organs
    • released directly into tissue fluids, not through ducts
  3. hormone chemistry
    • two types: amino acid compounds and lipids
    • amino acid compounds:
    • -proteins or related compounds
    • -all hormones except steroids
    • lipids:
    • -made of fatty acids
    • -most are steroids, derived from cholesterol
    • -produced in adrenal cortex and sex glands
    • -prostaglandins are also lipids
  4. hormone regulation
    • negative feedback: endocrine gland oversecretes hormone, tissue becomes too active, tissue negatively effects gland to decrease secretion
    • positive feedback: hormone response produces more hormone
  5. negative feedback control of hormones
  6. tissues other than endocrine glands that secrete hormones
    • brain
    • kidney
    • adipose
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • atria of heart
    • placenta
  7. the endocrine glands
  8. Pituitary (Hypophysis) Gland
    • master gland
    • releases hormones that affect working of other glands
    • controlled by hypothalamus
  9. the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and target tissues. Arrows indicate the hormones' target tissues and feedback pathways
  10. control of the pituitary: hypothalamus
    • sends releasing hormones (RH) and inhibiting hormones (IH)
    • -> hormones stimulate and suppress anterior pituitary secretions
    • produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
    • -> stored in posterior pituitary
    • -> nerve impulses stimulate secretions
  11. hormones of the anterior lobe
    • growth hormone (GH) or somatropic
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropic
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • prolactin (PRL)
    • gonadotropins
    • -> follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • -> luteinizing hormone (LH)
  12. hormones of the posterior lobe
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • oxytocin
  13. the thyroid gland
    • largest endocrine gland
    • lateral lobes on either side of larynx
    • connecting band (isthmus)
    • enclosed by connective tissue capsule
  14. thyroid gland (anterior view)
  15. hormones of the thyroid gland
    • thyroxine (T4)
    • -> principle hormone; increases energy and protein metabolism rate
    • triiodothyronine (T3)
    • -> increases energy and protein metabolism rate
    • calcitonin
    • -> regulates calcium metabolism; works with parathyroid hormone and vitamin D
  16. the parathyroid glands
    • four glands in posterior capsule of thyroid
    • secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) -> works with calcitonin to regulate calcium metabolism
  17. parathyroid glands (anterior view)
  18. calcium metabolism - calcium balance requires:
    • calcitrol (dihydroxycholecalciferol) -> produced by modifying vitamin D in liver then in kidney
    • parathyroid hormone
    • calcitonin
  19. the adrenal glands
    • two small glands on top of kidneys
    • each gland has two parts that act as separate glands -> medulla; cortex
  20. the adrenal gland
  21. hormones from the adrenal medulla
    fight-or-flight hormones: epinephrine(adrenaline); norepinephrine(noradrenaline)
  22. hormones from the adrenal cortex
    • glucocorticoids - cortisol or hydrocortisone
    • mineralocorticoids - aldesterone
    • sex hormones
  23. the pancreas and its hormones
    • Islets of Langerhans are specialized pancreas cells that secrete:
    • insulin - lowers blood sugar level; stimulates manufacture of amino acids into protein
    • glucagon - increases blood sugar
  24. microscopic view of pancreatic cells
  25. the sex glands
    ovaries and testes produce hormones to: develop sexual characteristics; maintain reproductive organs
  26. hormones of the sex glands
    • male sex hormone - testosterone
    • female sex hormones - estrogen, progesterone
  27. the thymus gland
    • mass of lymphoid tissue in upper chest superior to heart
    • important in development of immunity
    • produces thymosin -> assists in maturity of T lymphocytes
  28. the pineal gland
    • cone-shaped structure posterior to midbrain
    • produces melatonin -> influences sleep-wake cycles; appears to delay onset of puberty
  29. prostaglandins
    • group of hormones made by most body tissues
    • produced, act, and rapidly inactivated in or close to origin
    • constrict structures
    • dilate structures
    • promote inflammation or reduce inflammation
  30. hormones and treatment: hormones extracted from animal tissue, manufactured in the lab, or genetically engineered
    • growth hormone
    • insulin
    • adrenal steroids
    • epinephrine (adrenaline)
    • thyroid hormones
    • oxytocin
    • androgens
    • estrogen and progesterone
  31. hormones and stress
    • stress response involves both nervous and endocrine system
    • hormones released during stress help body cope
    • unchecked levels of hormones can harm body
  32. aging and the endocrine system
    • pancreas - adult-onset diabetes mellitus
    • thyroid - decreased hormone secretion
    • pituitary - decreased gonadotropic hormones; decreased growth hormone
    • gonads - decreased sexual activity; loss of bone mass
  33. location of heart
    • between the lungs
    • left of the midline of the body
    • in mediastinum
    • apex pointed toward left
  34. the heart in position in the thorax (anterior view)
  35. endocardium
    lines the heart's interior - innermost layer of the heart wall
  36. myocardium
    the thickest layer of the heart wall; heart muscle
  37. epicardium
    thin outermost layer of the heart wall
  38. pericardium
    sac that encloses heart; made up of fibrous pericardium and serous membrane
  39. fibrous pericardium
    • outermost and heaviest layer of the pericardium
    • connective tissue anchors the heart sac to diaphragm, sternum, and other structures to hold it in place
  40. serous membrane
    • lines the fibrous pericardium
    • parietal layer: outer layer
    • pericardial cavity: region between parietal and visceral layer, thin film of liquid reduces friction
    • visceral layer (epicardium): thin, outermost layer of heart wall
  41. layers of the heart wall and pericardium
  42. special features of the myocardium (cardiac muscles)
    • are lightly striated (striped)
    • have single nucleus cells
    • are controlled involuntarily
    • have intercalated disks
    • have branching muscle fibers
  43. cardiac muscle tissue viewed under the microscope (x540)
  44. divisions of the heart
    • right side pumps blood low in oxygen to the lungs (pulmonary circuit)
    • left side pumps oxygenated blood to remainder of body (systemic circuit)
  45. four chambers of the heart
    • right atrium - receives low-oxygen blood returning from body tissue thorugh superior vena cava and inferior vena cava
    • left atrium - receives high-oxygen blood from lungs
    • right ventricle - pumps blood from right atrium to lungs
    • left ventricle - pumps oxygenated blood to body
  46. atrioventricular valves of the heart
    • entrance valves
    • right atrioventricular (AV) valve (tricuspid valve)
    • left atrioventricular (AV) valve (bicuspid valve)
  47. semilunar valves of the heart
    • exit valves
    • pulmonary valve
    • aortic valve
  48. valves of the heart (superior view from anterior, atria removed)
  49. pathway of blood through the heart
  50. blood supply to the myocardium
    • coronary circulation:
    • right coronary artery
    • left coronary artery
    • coronary sinus
  51. blood vessels that supply the myocardium. Coronary arteries and cardiac veins are shown
  52. opening of coronary arteries in the aortic valve (anterior view). (A) When the left ventricle contracts, the aortic valve opens. The valve cusps prevent filling of the coronary arteries. (B) When the left ventricle relaxes, backflow of blood closes the aortic valve and the coronary arteries fill
  53. phases of the cardiac cycle
    • systole - active phase, contraction
    • diastole - resting phase
  54. the cardiac cycle
  55. calculating cardiac output
    • cardiac output = CO
    • stroke volume = SV
    • heart rate = HR
    • CO = HR (subscript 3) SV
  56. heart's conduction system
    • nodes: sinoatrial (SA) node (pacemaker); atrioventricular (AV) node
    • specialized fibers: atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His); Purkinje fibers (conduction myofibers)
    • intercalated disks
  57. the conduction pathway of the heart: sinus rhythm
    • 1. sinoatrial (SA) node
    • 2. atria
    • 3. atrioventricular (AV) node
    • 4. internodal pathways
    • 5. bundle of His
    • 6. bundle branches and Purkinje fibers
    • 7. ventricles
  58. conduction system of the heart. The sinoatrial (SA) node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, and specialized fibers conduct the electrical energy that stimulates the heart muscle to contract
  59. control of heart rate
    • autonomic nervous system
    • sympathetic nervous system
    • parasympathetic system (cranial nerve X)
  60. autonomic nervous system regulation of the heart
  61. bradycardia
    slower heart rate than normal; less than 60 beats/minute
  62. tachycardia
    faster heart rate than normal; more than 100 beats/minute
  63. sinus arrhythmia
    changes in heart rate related to breathing rate changes
  64. premature beat (extrasystole)
    extra beat in the heart beat
  65. aging and the heart: how the heart can change
    • heart shrinks
    • decreased contraction strength
    • valves become less flexible
    • murmur develops
    • cardiac output decreases
    • abnormal rhythms
    • heart block

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