Final Exam Review

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  1. The blood carries
    nutrients from the intestine to the ________, which releases them to the heart,
    which pumps them to the waiting body tissues.
  2. When the pancreas
    detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases:
  3. The nervous system's
    role in hunger regulation is coordinated by the:
  4. The four basic
    chemical tastes include sweet, sour, bitter and salty. A fifth taste, the
    taste of ________, is called savory or "umami."
    • monosodium
    • glutamate
  5. The stomach and
    intestine take up the task of liquefying foods through various mashing and
    squeezing actions called:
  6. Food that is ground
    and mixed with digestive chemicals in the stomach is called:
  7. Cells in the stomach
    release gastric juice, a mixture of water, enzymes, and hydrochloric acid
    needed to initiate digestion of:
  8. The primary organ of
    digestion and absorption is the:
    • small
    • intestine
  9. Essay

    When food leaves the
    stomach and enters the small intestine, which of the following occurs?
    • a. Hormones
    • signal the gallbladder to contact and squirt bile into the small intestine.

    • [ ]
    • b. Hormones signal the pancreas to release pancreatic juice
    • containing bicarbonate.

    • [ ]
    • c. The food entering the small intestine is neutralized by
    • bicarbonate.
  10. Essay

    Digestion of
    carbohydrates, fats, and proteins results in ________, ________, and ________,
    • simple sugars, fatty
    • acids, amino acids
  11. The small intestine
    is wrinkled into thousands of folds that:
    • . serve
    • to increase its absorbing surface area
  12. Erosion of the
    lining of the esophagus, stomach, or small intestine is called a(n):
  13. Once dissolved, the
    mineral ________ helps to regulate blood pressure, and its excretion or
    retention by the kidneys is a vital part of the body's blood
    pressure-controlling mechanism.
  14. The ________
    regulate(s) the fluid volume and concentrations of substances in the blood and
    extracellular fluid with great precision.
  15. The body's energy
    stores are of two principal kinds: ________ in muscle and liver cells and
    ________ in fat cells.
    glycogen, fat
  16. A body mass index
    (BMI) of 25.0–29.9 in an adult indicates:
  17. Older people
    generally need less energy than younger people due to:
    slowed metabolism

    • reduced muscle
    • mass
Card Set:
Final Exam Review

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