Endocrine System

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  1. Hormones
    Body's Chemical messengers
  2. Gland
    • Group of cells that produces and secretes hormones
    • selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product, or hormone, for use in the body
  3. Ducts
    • tubes that lead from a gland to a target organ
    • *Endocrine glands = ductless glands*
  4. Pituitary gland
    controls all endocrine glands
  5. Posterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland
    hormones produced in the hypothalamus
  6. Anterior Pituitary Gland
    • Regulate the activities of the other endorcrine glands
    • produces and releases its own hormones which are then stimulated by the hypothalamus
  7. Thyroid Gland
    • located in the front, lower neck
    • Produces hormones that control body metabolism
  8. Parathyroid Glands
    • located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland and consist of 4 or more small glands
    • control the amount of calcium and phosphate in the blood
  9. Pancreas
    • located back of the abdomen, behind the stomach
    • Both an endocrine & exocrine gland
  10. Adrenal Glands
    *Suprarenal Glands

    Located in thoacic abdomen, atop of the kidneys
  11. Adrenal Cortex
    • Secretes Corticosteroids
    • -mineralocorticoids
    • -glucocorticoids
  12. Adrenal Medulla
    Secretes Catecholamines
  13. Adrenal Cortex Hormones
    *Adrencortical Steroids*


    • Mineralocorticoids
    • -Aldosterone

    • Glucocorticoids
    • -Cortisol

    • Androgens
    • -Estrogens
  14. What do Corticosteroids influence or regulate?
    sodium, potassium, and water
  15. What does the Mineralocorticoids affect?
    the electrolyte composition of body fluids
  16. What does Aldosterone do?
    Increases the sodium reabsorption and increasing potassium secretion

    kidneys retain sodium & water->body fluid increases->blood pressure increases
  17. What does glucocorticoids affect?
    Glucose metabolism
  18. What does Cortisol do?
    Converts fat into glucose and suppress the inflammatory response

    Secondarily regulates carbohydrate metabolism, the immune system and helps maintain blood pressure
  19. What does Androgens do?
    Convert into estrogens and are responsible for sexual traits
  20. What are the Adrenal Medulla Hormones?
    • Epinephrine
    • Norephinephrine
  21. What does Epinephrine do?
    Boosts oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles
  22. What does Norephinephrine do?
    Increses the heart rate

    triggers the release of gluscose from energy store

    increases the blood flow to skeletal muscles
  23. What are the Anterior Pituitary Gland Hormones?
    • Somatotropic
    • Thyroid Stimulating
    • Adrenocorticotropic
    • Follicle Stimulating
    • Luteinizing
    • Luteotropic
  24. What does the Somatotropic Hormone stimulate?
    Growth of shit~Kettering

    Bone and surrounding tissue growth
  25. What does the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone stimulate?
    Production and secretion of thyroid gland hormones
  26. What does Adrenocorticotropic Hormone do?
    Secretion of glucocorticoids

    Stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex
  27. What are the Gonadotropin Hormones?
    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone
    • Luteinizing Hormone
    • Luteotropic Hormone
  28. What does FSH do?
    • Initiates follicle development of the ovaries in females
    • Stimulates the secretion of estrogens by ovarian cells
    • Stimulates spermatogenesis in men
    • Controls growth of the gonads through increased testosterone production
  29. What does the Luteinizing Hormone do?
    • Final development of the ovary follicles
    • Induces ovulation
    • Stimulates testicles to produce testosterone
  30. Posterior Pituitary Gland Hormones
    • Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Oxytocin
  31. What does the Antidiuretic Hormone do?
    • Increases water reabsorption in the kidneys
    • ->constriction of blood vessels
    • ->increases blood pressure
  32. What does Oxytocin do?
    • smooth muscle contraction in uterus
    • used for labor and delivery
    • stimulates milk let down
  33. Thyroid Gland Hormones
    • Thyroxine
    • Triiodothyronie
    • Calcitonin
  34. What does Thyroxine do?
    Regulates metabolism and growth
  35. What does Triiodothyronine do?
    • Combos with Thyroxine to control metabolism
    • increasing protein and glucose production
  36. What does Calcitonin do?
    • Decrease calcium absorption and osteoclast activity
    • makes bones stronger
  37. What does the Parathyroid Gland Hormone do?
    • Increases calcium concentrations by removing it from the bone
    • Reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys
    • Reduces urinary loss
    • Stimulate formation and secretion of calcitriol @ kidneys
  38. What are the 2 Endocrine Pancreas Hormones?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  39. What does Insulin do?
    • Increases Glucose uptake
    • Lowers blood glucose
  40. What does Glucagon do?
    • Increases glucose concentration in the blood
    • Increase blood sugar levels
Card Set:
Endocrine System
2011-08-17 15:19:39

Pharmacy Specialist 68Q
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