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Body's Chemical messengers
- Group of cells that produces and secretes hormones
- selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product, or hormone, for use in the body
- tubes that lead from a gland to a target organ
- *Endocrine glands = ductless glands*
controls all endocrine glands
Posterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland
hormones produced in the hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary Gland
- Regulate the activities of the other endorcrine glands
- produces and releases its own hormones which are then stimulated by the hypothalamus
- located in the front, lower neck
- Produces hormones that control body metabolism
- located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland and consist of 4 or more small glands
- control the amount of calcium and phosphate in the blood
- located back of the abdomen, behind the stomach
- Both an endocrine & exocrine gland
Located in thoacic abdomen, atop of the kidneys
- Secretes Corticosteroids
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
What do Corticosteroids influence or regulate?
sodium, potassium, and water
What does the Mineralocorticoids affect?
the electrolyte composition of body fluids
What does Aldosterone do?
Increases the sodium reabsorption and increasing potassium secretion
kidneys retain sodium & water->body fluid increases->blood pressure increases
What does glucocorticoids affect?
What does Cortisol do?
Converts fat into glucose and suppress the inflammatory response
Secondarily regulates carbohydrate metabolism, the immune system and helps maintain blood pressure
What does Androgens do?
Convert into estrogens and are responsible for sexual traits
What are the Adrenal Medulla Hormones?
What does Epinephrine do?
Boosts oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles
What does Norephinephrine do?
Increses the heart rate
triggers the release of gluscose from energy store
increases the blood flow to skeletal muscles
What are the Anterior Pituitary Gland Hormones?
- Thyroid Stimulating
- Follicle Stimulating
What does the Somatotropic Hormone stimulate?
Growth of shit~Kettering
Bone and surrounding tissue growth
What does the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone stimulate?
Production and secretion of thyroid gland hormones
What does Adrenocorticotropic Hormone do?
Secretion of glucocorticoids
Stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex
What are the Gonadotropin Hormones?
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone
- Luteinizing Hormone
- Luteotropic Hormone
What does FSH do?
- Initiates follicle development of the ovaries in females
- Stimulates the secretion of estrogens by ovarian cells
- Stimulates spermatogenesis in men
- Controls growth of the gonads through increased testosterone production
What does the Luteinizing Hormone do?
- Final development of the ovary follicles
- Induces ovulation
- Stimulates testicles to produce testosterone
Posterior Pituitary Gland Hormones
- Antidiuretic Hormone
What does the Antidiuretic Hormone do?
- Increases water reabsorption in the kidneys
- ->constriction of blood vessels
- ->increases blood pressure
What does Oxytocin do?
- smooth muscle contraction in uterus
- used for labor and delivery
- stimulates milk let down
Thyroid Gland Hormones
What does Thyroxine do?
Regulates metabolism and growth
What does Triiodothyronine do?
- Combos with Thyroxine to control metabolism
- increasing protein and glucose production
What does Calcitonin do?
- Decrease calcium absorption and osteoclast activity
- makes bones stronger
What does the Parathyroid Gland Hormone do?
- Increases calcium concentrations by removing it from the bone
- Reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys
- Reduces urinary loss
- Stimulate formation and secretion of calcitriol @ kidneys
What are the 2 Endocrine Pancreas Hormones?
What does Insulin do?
- Increases Glucose uptake
- Lowers blood glucose
What does Glucagon do?
- Increases glucose concentration in the blood
- Increase blood sugar levels