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An Ad Hominem is a general category of fallacies in which a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of or the person presenting the claim or argument.
Ad Hominem Tu Quoque ("You Too" fallacy)
This fallacy is committed when it is concluded that a person's claim is false because 1) it is inconsistent with something else a person has said or 2) what a person says is inconsistent with her actions.
Appeal to Authority
This fallacy is committed when the person in question is not a legitimate authority on the subject. More formally, if person A is not qualified to make reliable claims in subject S, then the argument will be fallacious.
Appeal to Belief
This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because the fact that many people believe a claim does not, in general, serve as evidence that the claim is true.
Appeal to Common Practice
The basic idea behind the fallacy is that the fact that most people do X is used as "evidence" to support the action or practice. It is a fallacy because the mere fact that most people do something does not make it correct, moral, justified, or reasonable.
Appeal to Consequences of a Belief
This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because the consequences of a belief have no bearing on whether the belief is true or false.
Appeal to Emotion
This fallacy is committed when someone manipulates peoples' emotions in order to get them to accept a claim as being true.
Appeal to Fear
This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because creating fear in people does not constitute evidence for a claim.
Appeal to Flattery
The basic idea behind this fallacy is that flattery is presented in the place of evidence for accepting a claim. this sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because flattery is not, in fact, evidence for a claim.
Appeal to Novelty
This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because the novelty or newness of something does not automatically make it correct or better than something older.
Appeal to Pity
This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because pity does not serve as evidence for a claim.
Appeal to Popularity
The basic idea is that a claim is accepted as being true simply because most people are favorably inclined towards the claim.
Appeal to Ridicule
This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because mocking a claim does not show that it is false.
Appeal to Spite
This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because a feeling of spite does not count as evidence for or against a claim.
Appeal to Tradition
This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because the age of something does not automatically make it correct or better than something newer.
Bandwagon (Peer Pressure)
This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because peer pressure and threat of rejection do not constitute evidence for rejecting a claim.
Begging the Question (Circular Reasoning)
This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because simply assuming that the conclusion is true (directly or indirectly) in the premises does not constitute evidence for that conclusion.
The fallacy is committed when the sample of A's is likely to be biased in some manner. A sample is biased or loaded when the method used to take the sample is likely to result in a sample that does not adequately represent the population from which it is drawn.
Burden of Proof (Appeal to Ignorance)
Burden of Proof is a fallacy in which the burden of proof is placed on the wrong side. Another version occurs when a lack of evidence for side A is taken to be evidence for side B in cases in which the burden of proof actually rests on side B.
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