Test has an established, nonvarying procedure� a manual for the person administering the test� a script to read� strict instructions (i.e. SAT, GRE, RICA, etc.)
What is Norm-Referenced test?
For comparisons between the students taking the tests and a national average (i.e. SAT, CSET). Here the raw scores are converted into normative scores for comparison purposes.
What are percentile scores?
Norm-referenced scores � the raw score is converted into a percentile suggesting your ranking among every 100 test takers� average score would be 50%.... a 78 percentile score would suggest of every 100, you did better than 78
What are grade equivalent scores?
A norm referenced score where upon the raw score is converted to a school grade level
What are IRI?
Informal Reading Inventories� a battery or collection of tests administered individually to students� selection of tests depends on student�s reading level
What are �Word Recognition Lists�?
Sometimes called �graded word lists,� usually 10 in each list consisting of beginning kindergarten called preprimer and harder words for kindergarten called primer. Such words are usually created for grades K � 8th grade.
What are the three purposes of Word Recognition Lists?
It provides a rough guess of the child�s reading level. It provides information on the child�s �sight� vocabulary. It provides information about the child�s ability to use sound-symbol relationships (phonics) to decode words.
What are 6 reading comprehension strategies, per RICA?
Self-Monitoring � do I understand, Re-reading � a repair strategy, Summarizing � can retell by highlighting the important information, notetaking/outlining � like these cards, MAPPING � put in chronological order, Learning Logs � record your thoughts about a book
What are 5 kind of journals kids could write �as part of their experience with literature & content-area texts��
Personal journals � not for teacher to share, Dialogue Journal � could be shared with a classmate to respond to, Reading Response Log, Double Entry Journal, Content Learning Logs
What is needed in Quantitative Analysis?
Quantitative Analysis uses numbers to categorize student work. You would use a RUBRIC
What are 5 advantages to independent reading?
Familiarity with language patterns, Increase fluency, increase vocabulary, broadens knowledge in content areas, motivates further reading
What are ways teachers may assess oral and written language?
Reaches audience & achieves its purpose, Substance � direct, to the point & Form � clear, coherent, punctuation, Discrete � and (assess one element), Holistic � consider all elements of substance & form, Qualitative and Quantitative: rubric, numbers
What is a reading inventory, how should it be administered and what 2 things should be considered?
A survey of student reading behavior. How � orally to younger kids and in writing to older, in order to determine 1. How much a child values reading as a recreational activity, 2. The child�s reading preferences
What are vowel and consonant digraphs?
They have one sound Vowel � ear, bait, cheat, Consonant � the, which, church
What is a dipthong?
One vowel sound and moving to another vowel sound within the same syllable, (oy in boy, ou in cloud)
What are five reading-related oral language activities that teachers should implement?
Choral reading (language play), Drama (children must adapt their speaking manner), small group discussions of books (3 � 6 kids), answering questions helps children learn to think on their feet, oral report after content area reading
What are the rules of the letter �c�?
Has two phonemes /k/ and /s/. /k/ before a, o and u (e.g. cake, coke, cup), /s/ - before e, I, and y (e.g. cereal, excited, cycle)
What is VCe (final e) generalization?
When a word has a final letter e, the medial vowel is usually long and the final e is silent, e.g. cake, bake, cute, kite, tote
What are 5 categories of muti-sensory techniques that teach spelling?
Visual � looking and repeated writing, 2. Visual use of color � use crayons highlight spelling patterns, 3. Auditory: child says the letter aloud as he writes 4. Kinesthetic � write large letters in the air, 5 tactile � use sandpaper, window screens and shaving cream
What are two ways for assessing spelling?
In isolation � spelling tests, In content � in everyday writing
What types of spelling words should students be expected to learn?
Content area words, common-need words (many of the children have difficulty spelling), high frequency words (especially irregular spellings), groups of words that have commonly occurring ortho-graphic patterns
What should students demonstrate in their oral and written responses to literature to show their understanding?
Do they incorporate literary elements of setting, character, plot, 2 do they make personal connections? 3. Do they provide specific examples to support their oral or written responses?
What are 4 aspects of a comprehensive reading program?
Assessment, 2 develop phonological awareness, 3 develop reading comprehension & independent reading, 4 support oral and written language development � understand relationship among reading, writing and oral (speaking and listening), development of vocabulary & understanding of English language structure
What is Fluency?
Accuracy, rate and expression
What is Shared Book Experience
Intro, pre-read, book orientation, read dramatically
What are 4 characteristics of a graphic organizer? What is another name?
Prepared by the teacher, provides an overview of the information, has relatively few words, examined before students read
What is the G generalization?
G has two phonemes /g/ and /j/. /g/ before a, o and u (e.g. gate, goat, gun), and /j/ before e, I and y (e.g. gem, gin, gym)
What are the 4 stages of writing?
Pre-writing: choose/narrow topic, consider purpose/audience, outline(talk to classmates, draw a picture, do a quickwrite): main idea, organize supporting details. 2. Draft. 3. Revising/Editing � by self, peer, teacher then revised. 4. Final Draft � not always necessary
Compare and contrast Discrete and Holistic.
When assessing students� speech or writing, teachers can look at Discrete (single, separate elements like spelling or punctuation), or Holistic the entire essay, considering all elements.
What are 4 ways of assessing content area literacy?
CLOZE test 2. Text structures � had kids fill in a Venn diagram or the skeleton, 3. Multilevel questions (QAR, right there, think search, author and you, 4. Teacher observation/anecdotal records
What is the difference between phonemic and phonetic (phonic) awareness?
Phonemic sounds without print, while phonic is with print (letters or letter combinations
What are content learning logs?
Journals used for content (social studies, science, math, etc.). Students write their own 1. Questions they want answered, 2. Assignments, 3. Input information they have learned
What are the 4 stages of spelling development?
Pre-phonetic (no letters or random letters), Phonetic (sometimes use, correctly, one sound per letter � all phonemes have a grapheme), Transitional (most American English orthographic patterns), Conventional � almost all words spelled correctly
What is an IRI?
Informal Reading Inventory an informal method of assessing student reading level using graded selections from beginning (preprimer) and extending to 8th grade or beyond. It yields information about Independent, instructional, frustration levels or listening capacity.
Name 4 Concepts of Print (students must be explicitly taught if they do not know)?
Print carries meaning. 2. Directionality & tracking. 3. There is a difference between a letter, a word and a sentence (know boundaries). 4. Book orientation, which is the cover, title page, author�s name, where does the story begin?
What is a vowel digraph?
When two vowels together make one sound, usually the first vowel is long while the second is silent, eg. Boat, feet, play�
What is a 3-level study guide?
Written by teacher, true/false statements, aligned with RICA � 3 levels of comprehension 1. Literal, 2. Evaluative, 3. Inferential
What are 4 reading repair strategies?
1 � rereading, 2 � asking teacher, 3 � use dictionary, 4 � look at an illustration
When would students use text-to-text or text-to-self? Etc.
When responding to literature orally or in written form. Literary Response and Analysis
What are 4 exams for testing meaning vocabulary and correlate to commercial tests?
1 � the target word is in a sentence. The multiple choise answers are phases, never a word in isolation). 2 � choose a synonym. 3 � analogy, head::body as _____::mountain (peak), 4. Match definition to word
What are 3 ways children need to learn to read informational (content-area) texts?
1 � Skim, quickly look at the entirety of the writing to preview or review. 2 � Scan � rapid reading to get a specific detail(s), 3 � In-depth reading aiming for full understanding (SQ3R)
What does retelling of a story help the teacher assess?
Assess Literal Comprehension by having students retell (also called free recall, and free retelling). Probed recall � if the student doesn�t mention every, then ask student about setting, characters, plot events, etc.
What are 5 ways to help students improve reading fluency?
1 � repeated reading (especially poems). 2 � assisted reading � buddy read (each supports the other), 3 � choral reading � more than 2 children (often entire class), 4. Reader�s Theater (any language rich environment/center), 5. Teach improved word identification skills
What are 4 types of phonics tests a teacher should give a student?
1 � decode in isolation (can use nonsense words). 2 � decode in context. 3 � encode in isolation (the traditional spelling test). 4 � encode in context (have them write sentences or a short paragraph)
What are literary recognition strategies?
1 � display large letters on the blackgoard, students whose names starts with that letter line up underneath it. 2 � 26 shoeboxes, each labeled with a different letter, students place toys starting with the letter in the correct box. 3 � Sing the Alphabet Song slowly and point to the letter. 4 � ABC books. Read aloud books organized by the letters of the alphabet. 5 � Practice writing upper and lower case letters. 6 � Tactile and Kinesthetic method � tactile � students make letters from clay or trace with their fingers cut from sand paper. Kinesthetic � pretend to write letters in air that are 2 feet in height.
Provide examples of individual or small group interventions in spelling?
1 - Groups students by spelling level/specific needs, 2 � Provide direct, explicit instruction to teach student spelling patterns (pyramid, saying it aloud as they spell it, etc.)
What are 5 alternatives to teaching new vocabulary? (other than dictionary or display and tell)
1 � Teacher created cluing technique, 2 � contextual redefinition, have small group of students guess/reach consensus by looking at context, 3 � semantic mapping, 4 � word sort (list, group, label), 5 � semantic feature analysis
What single English language arts component most highly predicts successful reading?
Phonemic Awareness � because it is the foundation for understanding the sound/symbol relationship of English, which will actually be taught through phonic lessons
Name 7 ways of using �implicit� teaching phonemic awareness, also called _____ or ____. How do you then teach?
1 � word play, 2 � chants books, 3 - rhymes, 4 � songs, 5 � games, 6 � alliteration, 7 � tongue-twisters. It is also called �indirect� or �embedded� (teach & then ask questions, i.e. �did you notice�?�)
What is a diagraph?
When two letters create one sound, /ch/, /th/, /sh/, /ea/, /oa/, etc.
What are 3 ways to teach sight words?
1 � Word Walls, charts with related words, ABC wall, 2 � word banks, personally kept collection of words (notecards, dictionary), 3 � explicit, direct teaching (whole-to-part only)
Where should you derive sight words?
1 � high frequency words, 2 � words with irregular spellings, 3 � high interest words students want to know (e.g. Playstation, Taco Bell, Burger King, etc.), 4 � concept/theme/content words
What is SQ3R?
S � Survey/skim, look at bold type, title, headings, etc. Q � question, write question they want answered, R � read, look for answers to questions, R � recite, say aloud what they learned, R � review, use study questions and answers to review.
What are Semantics?
The meaning of words
What is a phonogram?
Often called word families, phoograms end in high frequency rimes that vary only in the beginning consonant sound to make a word, like back, sack, black, rack, and track, etc. or more often, -at, bat, cat, sat, etc.
What are the 3 levels of reading comprehension?
1 � Literal, the answer can be found in the text, 2 � Inferential, the answer may be deduced from the reading, 3 � Evaluative, the reader must distinguish fact from opinion, detect bias, etc.
What are r-controlled vowels?
Neither long nor short. R alters the natural sound of the vowel as in better, shelter, later, bar (vs. bad, a sound),
What is an affix?
Most commonly suffix or prefix attached to a base word, root, stem.
What is automaticity?
The speed and accuracy of word recognition and spelling.
What are blends?
It refers to 2 or 3 letter sequences that are blended together. L � blends (cl, bl, fl, etc.), r- blends (br, cr, gr, etc.) and s- blends (sc, scr, sp, st, etc.) Each letter is pronounced. Consonant blends at the beginning of the word are ONSETS.
What is choral reading?
Reading in unison with two or more persons
What is a closed sort?
A word sort based on predetermined categories.
What is a closed syllable?
When a syllable ends or is �closed� by a consonant.
What is CLOZE?
An activity in which students supply a single missing word, usually in the middle or at the end.
What are cognates?
Words in different languages derived from the same root.
What is a diphthong?
A complex speech sound beginning with one vowel sound and moving to another within the same syllable, �oy� as in boy, �ou� as in cloud.
What is echo reading?
The student echoes or imitates the reading of the teacher or partner, used with very beginning readers as a form of support. It may also be used to model fluency.
What is a error guide?
A sample of spelling errors arranged by spelling stages that enables teachers to place children in instructional groups.
What is feature analysis?
It informs teachers what spelling features to teach. Feature analysis is more than scoring words right or wrong; it provides a way of interpreting children�s spelling errors by taking into account their knowledge of specific orthographic features, such as consonant blends or short vowels.
What is a homograph?
Words that are spelled alike, but have different pronunciations and meaning, such as �tear,� as in �tear a piece of paper� and �to shed a tear.�
What is ONSET?
The initial consonant sound in a single syllable or word, so the onset of sun is /s/, of slide is /sl/, usually those consonants before the first vowel.
What is a RIME?
A rime unit is composed of a vowel and any following consonants within a syllable, e.g. �ag in tag.
What is an open syllable?
An open syllable ends with a long-vowel sound, labor, reason, etc.
What is orthography/orthographic?
Refers to the writing system of a language, specifically, the correct sequence of letters, characters, or symbols.
What is a phoneme?
The smallest unit of speech that distinguish one word from another, e.g. t of tug and the r of rug are two phonemes.
What is phoneme segmentation?
The process of dividing a word into its smallest sound unites, bat become /b/a/t/.
What is phonemic awareness?
The conscious ability to manipulate individual phonemes in a SPOKEN language, usually assessed by the ability to tap, count or push a penny forward for every sound heard in a word like cat: /c/a/t/.
What are phonics?
Phonics is the systematic relationship between letters and sound.
What is phonological awareness (not phonemic awareness)?
Phonological awareness is an awareness of various speech sounds such as syllables, rhyme, and individual phonemes.
What does it mean to scaffold?
It�s a form of support. The bridge needed to close the gap from the known to the unknown or abstract. Scaffold are those teaching strategies necessary to help make the unintelligible intelligible.
What is structural analysis?
The process of determining the pronunciation and/or meaning of a word by analyzing word parts including syllables, base words, and affixes.
What are sight words?
Words recognized and pronounced immediately �at first sight.� It does not necessarily mean high frequency words or phonetically irregular words, though these are often exercixed until they become sight words. A sight word is simply any known word, regardless of its frequency or phonetic regularity.
What is a syllabic pattern?
The alternating patterns of consonants � and vowels (V at the point where syllables meet, e.g. rabbit follows a VCCV syllable pattern at the point where the syllables meet.
What is a word bank?
A collection of known words harvested from frequently read texts such as little leveled books, dictated stories, basal preprimers, and primers. Words students can recognize with ease are used in word games and word sorts.
What are word cards?
Word cards are words written on 2-by-1-inch pieces of cardstock or paper.
What are word hunts?
A word study activity in which students go back to texts they have previously read to hng for other words that follow the same spelling features examined during the word or picture sort.
What is word sort?
A basic word study routine in which students group words into categories, usually involve comparing and contrasting within and across categories. Word sorts are often cued by key words placed at the top of each category.
What is Zone of Proximal Development?
ZPD refers to the ripe conditions for learning something new. A person�s ZPD is that zone which is neither too hard nor too easy. The term is imilar to the concept of �INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL.�
What are the 3 reading levels called, along with their word recognition percentages and average comprehension percentages?
INDEPENDENT READING � is reading at 99 � 100% word recognition in context and 90-100% average comprehension. This is the point upon students can read on their own without teacher assistance. INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL- consists of 95-98% word recognition in context with an average comprehension of 75-89%. The Instructional level refers to the point where students need assistance because there are too many unknown words, concepts or students lack the background experience to understand sufficiently. FRUSTRATION LEVEL � consists of less than 90% word recognition in context and average comprehension of below 50%. This is the level whereupon a student cannot read despite teacher support.
What is the ability to visually perceive similarities?
What are words with the same spelling but different pronounciations?
What are meaning-bearing units in a word, usually roots?
What are the vowels in which a vowel sound is affected by an r?
What does Part-to-whole phonics approach that emphasizes?
What is the part of a syllable that begins with a vowel?
What does it mean to �figure out the pronunciation� of a word?
What does it mean �to write or spell a word?
What are 2 vowel letters that make 1 sound called?
What are words with different spellings and meanings, yet sound the same called?
What is the unit of pronunciation consisting of a vowel called?
What is the smallest sound units of speech called?
A vowel in an unaccented syllable-sound is called a?
The consonant sound(s) at the beginning of a word is called?
What is a single vowel sound made up of a blend?
What are 2 consonant letters that you hear as one sound?
What is the word for �2 or more consonant (bl, sl, cr, spl) letters where you can hear each letter� called?
What are two letters that make one sound called?
What is alliteration?
2 or more words in a line or sentence with the same beginning sound usually used to help students focus on beginning sound that mark work boundaries in print.