Microbiology Chapt. 17

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jessebuck90
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96798
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Microbiology Chapt. 17
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2011-08-11 13:39:47
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Microbiology immunization immune testing
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Quiz chapter 17
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  1. Variolation was first used
    A. to spread smallpox throughout the Native American populations
    B. to immunize the Chinese against smallpox
    C. for research purposes in the twentieth century
    D. to protect individuals against the plague during the Middle ages
    E. to treat individuals exposed to hepatitis
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control infectious diseases?
    A. immune testing
    B. active immunization by vaccination
    C. passive immunization
    D. variolation
    E. autoimmunization
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. All of the following statements are true of variolation EXCEPT:
    A. it reduced the incidence of smallpox
    B. at the time no one knew how it worked
    C. it was administered to children as early as the 12th century
    D. it was risk-free
    E. it involves grinding smallpox scabs
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. By the 1900s there were vaccines for all the following EXCEPT:
    A. rabies
    B. anthrax
    C. hepatitis
    D. smallpox
    E. measles
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. All of the following are methods for attenuation EXCEPT:
    A. A and B
    B. treatment with formaldehyde
    C. genetic manipulation
    D. culturing under unusual circumstances
    E. replication for many generations
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The only adjuvant that is used in vaccinating humans is
    A. formaldehyde
    B. alum
    C. mineral oil
    D. Freund's complete adjuvant
    E. saponin
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. An inactivated vaccine has all the following characteristics EXCEPT:
    A. it is safer than an attenuated vaccine
    B. it is made from mutated forms of the pathogen
    C. it is made from pathogens that cannot replicate
    D. it can be produced from antigenic fragments of a pathogen
    E. it can be produced with deactivated whole microorganisms
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. All the following are limitations to the use of antisera EXCEPT:
    A. multiple uses could cause anaphylaxis
    B. they may be contaminated with viral antigens
    C. the antibodies to antisera are degraded rapidly in the recipient
    D. they contain a mixture of antigens, not just the antigen in question
    E. they provide passive immunity
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. An adjuvant is a substance that
    A. increases the effective antigenicity of a pathogen
    B. is used to inactivate a microbe in a vaccine
    C. delays the action of the vaccine
    D. is a piece of a microbe that is representative of the entire microorganism
    E. is used to decrease the inflammatory reaction to a vaccine
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Killed vaccines work by stimulating
    A. the production of memory cells associated with an immune response
    B. the cell-mediated immune response
    C. the production of antibodies
    D. T cytotoxic cells
    E. the action of type 1 T cells
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following substances is NOT used as an adjuvant?
    a. a saponin
    b. aluminum
    c. aluminum phosphate
    d. formaldehyde
    e. mineral oil
    b or d
  12. All the following statements apply to toxoids EXCEPT:
    A. they have few antigenic determinants
    B. they provide lifelong immunity
    C. they are chemically or thermally modified
    D. they stimulate antibody-mediated immune responses
    E. they are produced against the toxin of the microorganism rather than the microorganism itself
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. OPV, the attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine, is no longer administered because
    A. it is very toxic
    B. the site of administration remains sore for many days after administration
    C. it does not provide good immunity
    D. it can cause severe anaphylaxis in some individuals
    E. it can cause clinical poliomyelitis in 1/2,000,000 vaccinated individuals
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Passive immunity is used when
    A. protection against a recent infection or disease is needed immediately
    B. a representative antigen for the microbe cannot be isolated
    C. the microorganism can be genetically manipulated
    D. the pathogen does not produce a toxin
    E. the attenuated live vaccine is too difficult to produce
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Hybridomas are produced by
    A. repeated culture of a pathogen until it loses its virulence
    B. combining a viral infected cell with a bacterial infected cell
    C. combining two bacterial infected cells
    D. combining two virus-infected cells
    E. fusing tumor cells with myeloma cells
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The study and diagnosis of antigen-antibody interactions in the blood is known as
    A. immunology
    B. cytology
    C. histology
    D. serology
    E. hematology
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following diagnostic procedures depends on precipitation of an antigen-antibody complex?
    A. the Wasserman test for syphilis
    B. immunoelectrophoresis
    C. fluorescent antibody tests
    D. blood typing
    E. viral hemagglutination inhibition tests used to diagnose viral infections
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which is the technique used for detecting antibodies against multiple antigens in a complex mixture?
    A. the western blot test
    B. the Wasserman test
    C. the ELISA test
    D. the Ouchterlony test
    E. hemagglutination inhibition test
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Scientists commonly use radial immunodiffusion testing to
    A. diagnose infections by specific strains of viruses
    B. diagnose HIV
    C. inactivate an endogenous bacterial toxin
    D. measure the concentration of specific antibodies in a person's serum
    E. diagnose tuberculosis, because the diameter of the wheel corresponds to the severity of the infection
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. In precipitation tests, maximum precipitation takes place when
    A. a complex solution of many antibodies is used
    B. the amount of the antibody exceeds the amount of the antigen
    C. a toxin is present
    D. the amount of the antibody and the amount of the antigen are at optimal proportions
    E. the amount of the antigen exceeds the amount of the antibody
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Immunoelectrophoresis separates molecules based on
    A. the number of antigen molecules present in the solution
    B. the electrical charge of the molecules
    C. the number of different types of antibodies in the solution
    D. the number of antibody molecules present in the solution
    E. the types of microbes that produce the antigens in the solution
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. All of the following are sources of antiserum EXCEPT:
    A. animals
    B. humans
    C. B cells
    D. hybridomas
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. All of the following are limitations of antisera EXCEPT:
    A. it creates antibodies continuously
    B. repeated injections can cause allergic responses
    C. their antibodies are degraded relatively quickly
    D. it contains multiple antibodies
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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