Microbiology Chapt. 17

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  1. Variolation was first used
    A. to protect individuals against the plague during the Middle ages
    B. to spread smallpox throughout the Native American populations
    C. to treat individuals exposed to hepatitis
    D. for research purposes in the twentieth century
    E. to immunize the Chinese against smallpox
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control infectious diseases?
    A. autoimmunization
    B. passive immunization
    C. variolation
    D. immune testing
    E. active immunization by vaccination
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. All of the following statements are true of variolation EXCEPT:
    A. it reduced the incidence of smallpox
    B. at the time no one knew how it worked
    C. it was risk-free
    D. it was administered to children as early as the 12th century
    E. it involves grinding smallpox scabs
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. By the 1900s there were vaccines for all the following EXCEPT:
    A. hepatitis
    B. measles
    C. smallpox
    D. anthrax
    E. rabies
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. All of the following are methods for attenuation EXCEPT:
    A. treatment with formaldehyde
    B. genetic manipulation
    C. A and B
    D. replication for many generations
    E. culturing under unusual circumstances
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The only adjuvant that is used in vaccinating humans is
    A. alum
    B. formaldehyde
    C. Freund's complete adjuvant
    D. mineral oil
    E. saponin
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. An inactivated vaccine has all the following characteristics EXCEPT:
    A. it is made from pathogens that cannot replicate
    B. it can be produced from antigenic fragments of a pathogen
    C. it is safer than an attenuated vaccine
    D. it is made from mutated forms of the pathogen
    E. it can be produced with deactivated whole microorganisms
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. All the following are limitations to the use of antisera EXCEPT:
    A. they contain a mixture of antigens, not just the antigen in question
    B. multiple uses could cause anaphylaxis
    C. they provide passive immunity
    D. they may be contaminated with viral antigens
    E. the antibodies to antisera are degraded rapidly in the recipient
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. An adjuvant is a substance that
    A. is used to inactivate a microbe in a vaccine
    B. increases the effective antigenicity of a pathogen
    C. delays the action of the vaccine
    D. is used to decrease the inflammatory reaction to a vaccine
    E. is a piece of a microbe that is representative of the entire microorganism
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Killed vaccines work by stimulating
    A. the production of memory cells associated with an immune response
    B. the cell-mediated immune response
    C. the action of type 1 T cells
    D. T cytotoxic cells
    E. the production of antibodies
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following substances is NOT used as an adjuvant?
    a. a saponin
    b. aluminum
    c. aluminum phosphate
    d. formaldehyde
    e. mineral oil
    b or d
  12. All the following statements apply to toxoids EXCEPT:
    A. they have few antigenic determinants
    B. they are chemically or thermally modified
    C. they provide lifelong immunity
    D. they stimulate antibody-mediated immune responses
    E. they are produced against the toxin of the microorganism rather than the microorganism itself
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. OPV, the attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine, is no longer administered because
    A. it can cause severe anaphylaxis in some individuals
    B. it does not provide good immunity
    C. it can cause clinical poliomyelitis in 1/2,000,000 vaccinated individuals
    D. the site of administration remains sore for many days after administration
    E. it is very toxic
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Passive immunity is used when
    A. the attenuated live vaccine is too difficult to produce
    B. the microorganism can be genetically manipulated
    C. protection against a recent infection or disease is needed immediately
    D. a representative antigen for the microbe cannot be isolated
    E. the pathogen does not produce a toxin
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Hybridomas are produced by
    A. fusing tumor cells with myeloma cells
    B. repeated culture of a pathogen until it loses its virulence
    C. combining two bacterial infected cells
    D. combining a viral infected cell with a bacterial infected cell
    E. combining two virus-infected cells
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The study and diagnosis of antigen-antibody interactions in the blood is known as
    A. serology
    B. histology
    C. immunology
    D. hematology
    E. cytology
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following diagnostic procedures depends on precipitation of an antigen-antibody complex?
    A. viral hemagglutination inhibition tests used to diagnose viral infections
    B. blood typing
    C. fluorescent antibody tests
    D. the Wasserman test for syphilis
    E. immunoelectrophoresis
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which is the technique used for detecting antibodies against multiple antigens in a complex mixture?
    A. the western blot test
    B. the Ouchterlony test
    C. hemagglutination inhibition test
    D. the ELISA test
    E. the Wasserman test
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Scientists commonly use radial immunodiffusion testing to
    A. diagnose infections by specific strains of viruses
    B. inactivate an endogenous bacterial toxin
    C. diagnose HIV
    D. measure the concentration of specific antibodies in a person's serum
    E. diagnose tuberculosis, because the diameter of the wheel corresponds to the severity of the infection
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. In precipitation tests, maximum precipitation takes place when
    A. a toxin is present
    B. a complex solution of many antibodies is used
    C. the amount of the antigen exceeds the amount of the antibody
    D. the amount of the antibody exceeds the amount of the antigen
    E. the amount of the antibody and the amount of the antigen are at optimal proportions
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Immunoelectrophoresis separates molecules based on
    A. the number of antigen molecules present in the solution
    B. the electrical charge of the molecules
    C. the number of different types of antibodies in the solution
    D. the number of antibody molecules present in the solution
    E. the types of microbes that produce the antigens in the solution
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. All of the following are sources of antiserum EXCEPT:
    A. B cells
    B. hybridomas
    C. animals
    D. humans
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. All of the following are limitations of antisera EXCEPT:
    A. it creates antibodies continuously
    B. repeated injections can cause allergic responses
    C. their antibodies are degraded relatively quickly
    D. it contains multiple antibodies
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
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Microbiology Chapt. 17
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Quiz chapter 17
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