Anesthetic agents

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  1. Uses of Anesthesia
    • Endotracheal intubation
    • Mechanical ventilation
    • Muscle relaxation during surgery
    • Electroconvulsive therapy
    • Procedural sedation (formerly known as conscious sedation)
  2. Anesthetics work by ....
    • Enhancing transmission at inhibitory synapse; GABA
    • Depressing transmission at excitatory synapse
  3. Balanced Anesthesia
    • Combination of drugs to ensure that induction is smooth and rapid and that anagesia and muscle relaxation are adequate.
    • Short acting barbituate
    • Neruomuscular blocking agents
    • Opioids and/or nitrous oxide
  4. Stage I Anesthesia
    Analgesia - patient experiences analgesia, but is conscious
  5. Stage II Anesthesia
    Excitement - systolic pressure rises, excitation/restlessness, increased respirations - often circumvented by a short-acting IV barbituate
  6. Stage III Anesthesia
    Surgical anesthesia
  7. Stage IV Anesthesia
    Medullary Depression - respirations cease; EMERGENCY!
  8. Pre-anesthetic Medications
    • Sedatives: Thiopental (Pentothal)
    • Anxiolytics: Diazepam (Valium), Midazolam (Versed)
  9. Nursing Responsibilities in Preoperative Environment
    • Preanestheic medication
    • Patient safety
    • Quiet environment
  10. Local Anesthetic Agents
    • Reversibly block all nerve impulses by disrupting permeability to sodium during action potential
    • Two major groups: Esters: Procaine (Novacain); Amides: Lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    • * Esters - more likely to cause an allergic reaction. If allergiv to one, it is assumed the persin will be allergic to all
  11. Nueromuscular Blocking Agents (NMB)
    • Directly interfere with neurotransmission at the end plate (site of communication between a nerve and a muscle)
    • Clinical use: Facilitate endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventillation and surgery
    • Do not block muscle constriction, they cause total muscular paralysis
    • Opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines are administered to manage pain, anxiety, and fear
  12. Chronic accidental exposure to isoflurane may increase the incidence of:
    • SAB
    • Birth defects
    • Still births
  13. Gluteraldehyde, a disinfectant agent for heat sensitive medical devices may cause:
    • Asthma-like symptoms
    • Rash
    • HA
    • Buring eyes
Card Set:
Anesthetic agents
2011-08-12 14:26:13

general, local, & NMB
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