week 2 notes

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week 2 notes
2011-08-24 00:21:59

LBCC Phlebotomy
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  1. Dermal puncture: list 2 sites for adult and 1 location for infants
    • Ring or middle finger for adults
    • heal for infant
  2. List equipment for dermal puncture
    • Lancet
    • alcohol pad
    • gauze
    • collection device
    • tape or bandage
  3. list the collection device for dermal puncture
    • Microcontainer
    • SAF-T-Fil
  4. Order of draw for dermal puncture
    • Lavender
    • other anticoagulants (green)
    • Any others (reds or gold)
  5. Define Anatomy
    study of the structures and organs and their relationships
  6. Define physiology
    study of the function of living organisms
  7. Levels of organization in the body from smallest to largest
    • -cell
    • -tissue
    • -organs
    • -system
    • -body
  8. a cell is
    smallest living organism
  9. tissue is
    similar cells working together to perform a function
  10. organ is
    similar tissues arranged to perform a specific function
  11. System is
    organization of specific organs working together.
  12. Body is
    all systems working together to sustain life
  13. Functions of the skeletal system
    • What system has the following functions:
    • support
    • protection
    • movement
    • mineral storage
    • hepatopoiesis
  14. Hematopoises is
    the formation of blood cells in red bone marrow forms in the illiac crest at the ends of the long bone
  15. 3 skeletal bone disorders
    • osteoporosis
    • tumors
    • rickets (vitamin D deficiency
  16. Tests one would do on the skeletal system
    • calcium level
    • -vitamin D
    • -phosphorus
    • -CBC
  17. functions of the muscular system
    • what system has the following functions
    • -body movement
    • -form and shape
    • -retaining heat
  18. Disorders of the muscular system
    • -tetanus
    • -atrophy
    • -myocardial infraction
  19. tests one would do for the muscular system
    • -lactic acid levels
    • -creatine phosphokinase
  20. functions of the nervous system
  21. -communicates and coordinate all body functions
    • -brain center for intellectual reasoning
    • what system performs these functions?
  22. neurons are
    highly specialized for nervous system use
  23. 2 main parts of the nervous system
    Central nervous system (CNS) and Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  24. the central nervous system is comprised of
    the brain and spinal cord
  25. the peripheral nervous system is comprised of
    all other nerves
  26. nervous system disorders include
    • Alzheimer's
    • Parkinsons
    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Carpal Tunnel syndrom
  27. Tests on the nervous system
    • Serotonin levels
    • drug levels
  28. The integumentary system is
    • -comprised of hair, skin, nails.
    • -the largest organ of the body
  29. Functions of the integumentary system
    • what system has the following functions
    • -protect
    • -regulation of body temperature
    • -storage
    • -sensation
  30. disorders of the integumentary system
    • what system has the following dirsorders
    • -acne
    • -cancer
    • -herpes
    • -psoriasis
  31. tests for the integumentary system
    • wet mount and KOH prep
    • Tissue culture
  32. Functions of the endocrine system
    secretes hormones into the blood stream
  33. syncope
    fainting (syn-co-pe)
  34. functions of the urinary system
    • what system has the following functions
    • -filters wastes from the blood stream
    • -secrets wastes into urine
    • -helps to maintain body's acid base balance
  35. Structures of the urinary system
    • the following structures are part of the ____ system
    • kidneys
    • bladder
    • ureter
    • urethra
  36. disorders of the urinary system
    • Cystitis
    • kidney stones
    • UTI (urinary tract infection)
  37. tests for the urinary system
    • UA Urine analysis
    • Urine culture
    • blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  38. functions of the digestive system
    • the ____ system has the following functions
    • -physically breaks down food
    • -chemically changes food into smaller particles
    • -absorbs nutrients
    • -eliminates waste products
  39. disorders of the digestive system
    • -colon cancer
    • -heart burn
    • -ulcers
    • -hepatitis
    • are disorders of what system?
  40. tests for the digestive system
    • cholesterol tests
    • glucose tests
    • bilirubin tests
  41. respiratory system functions
    • -exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • -structures to produce sound
  42. explain gas exchange in the lungs
    RBC's transport CO2 move to the lungs where CO2 is exchanged for O2. Both are bound in the RBC to a molecule coated in hemoglobin (iron rich protein)
  43. blood in veins are characterized as
    • oxygen poor
    • dark red to purple in color
    • blood of choice for most lab tests
    • traveling toward the heart
    • has valves
    • large luman
  44. characteristics of arteries
    • oxygen rich
    • bright cherry red in color
    • move away from the heart
    • thick muscular walls
    • small luman
  45. characteristics of capillaries
    • branch off arteries and form beds
    • at their ends, only one cell thick
    • oxygen is traded for carbon dioxide
  46. whole blood is
    blood in circulation
  47. how much blood does the average adult have
    5 liters of blood in the average ____
  48. content of anticoagulated blood
    • 55% plasma on top (contains clotting factors)
    • 45% formed elements (WBC, Platelets, RBC) with a buffy coat
  49. content of coagulated blood
    • serum
    • Clot: contains clotting factors, WBC, RBC, Platelets,
  50. plasma contains
    • 92% water
    • 8% amino acids, proteins, lipids, vitamines, hormones, and waste
  51. Characteristics of RBC's
    • -erythrocytes have no nucleus (expels nucleus when it leaves the bone marrow)
    • -biconcave disk
    • -central pallor from shape
    • -responsible for Oxygen transport
    • -live 120 days in circulation
    • -removed by the liver or spleen when old
    • these are characteristics of ________
  52. Characteristics of WBC's
    Leukocytes protect the body from infection
  53. neutophilis are
    a type of WBC that fight bacteria infection
  54. lymphocytes are
    a type of WBC that fight viral infections
  55. Monocytes are
    a type of WBC that clean up after other cells
  56. Eosinophils
    WBC that are phagocytes if in a tissue
  57. basophils are
    WBC present if there is an allergic reaction
  58. List 5 types of WBCs
    • Neutrophilis
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • eosinophil
    • basophil
  59. characteristics of platelets
    • thrombocytes are the smallest formed element in circulation
    • key as part of blood clotting
    • not a cell, but a cell fragment
  60. metamegakareocytes give off_____
    their fragments of in a bone and have a 9-12 day lifespan
  61. where do specimens arrive from
    • inpatient
    • outpatient
    • couriered from outlying area
  62. testing priority
    • routine general testing stable patients.
    • -STAT- immediate
    • -Timed (ten minute window)
    • -ASAP: inpatient has 2 hour Turn around time (TAT) outpatient has one business day
  63. Why protect some specimen from light
    • light can cause analyte to decay
    • protect tube with tinfoil
  64. which specimen would be light sensitive?
    • bilirubin
    • vitamin B 12, 2, and 6
    • carotene
    • and red cell folate are all need ______ special handling
  65. why refrigerate specimen
    • 7-8 C
    • cold can decrease decay of analytes. They are refrigerated if testing is delayed more than 60 minutes
  66. what specimen would need to be kept at body temperature transportation
    • 37C
    • cryoglobulins or cold agglutinin
  67. what specimen would need to be kept at room pemperature
    • 15-30 C.
    • all microbiological specimens require room temp to keep bacteria alive during transportation to the lab except urine goes in the fridge.
  68. what is the temperature for:
    body temp
  69. freezer temp
    2 C
  70. refrigerator temp
    7-8 C
  71. room tempre
    15-30 C
  72. in vetro
    in a tube
  73. in vevo
    in the living organism
  74. glycolytic acton is
    a process of red blood cells in vitro ad using glucose and other analytes form the liquid portion of the blood with time
  75. to prevent glycolytic action SST was invented.
    throxotropic gel migrates during centerfugation to block serum from cells. Serum separation tubes (SST) must sit for 30 minutes before centerfugation then centerfuge for 10-15 more minutes. bad for emergency situations where results are needed immediately
  76. PST bennefits
    plasma separation tubes only require centerfugation fast TAT 5-15 minutes instead of 45 or more as in SST.