chpt 27,26 study questions

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chpt 27,26 study questions
2011-08-13 15:34:58
pharm quiz3

local and general anesthetics
Show Answers:

  1. Using a vasoconstrictor (epinephrine) with a local anesthetic does what
    • Allows for the use of less anesthetic
    • Causes local vasoconstriction
    • Can cause adverse effects from systemic absorption of the vasoconstrictor
    • Delays systemic absorption
    • Reduces blood flow to the affected area
    • Reduces the risk of toxicity
  2. When a pt is receiving a local anesthetic with epinephrine, the nurse should carefully assess for which effects from the epinephrine??
    Rapid pulse and rising BP
  3. A pt who has a known allergy to chloroprocaine should not receive
  4. Cocaine differs from other ester-type local anesthetics in that it
    causes intense vasoconstriction
  5. A pt received intracenous regional anesthetic containing lidocaine without epinephrine when he had ankle surgery. At what point would the pt be at greatest risk for bradycardia, hypotension, and respirator depression from the lidocaine
    when the pt is in the postanesthesia unit
  6. Epinephrine is a vasoconstrictor that is often combined with lidocaine to???
    Delay systemic absorption of the lidocaine

    As a vasoconstrictor it would have decreased the blood seepage
  7. Epinephrine should not be used in areas supplied by
    end arteries, such as fingers or toes because of possible tissue necrosis from lack of arterial blood flow.
  8. Do not apply cold until the local anesthesia has
    “worn off.”

    Perception of temperature is impaired, and impaired circulation or frostbite could occur. Rest and elevate the joint. Do not apply cold for longer than 20-minute periods.
  9. Use of over-the-counter (OTC) topical lidocaine on open wounds increases the risk of
    systemic toxicity.

    Discuss the use of OTC analgesics, such as acetami- nophen with the prescriber. If a topical anesthetic is used, choose the lowest concentration and apply in a thin film only to intact skin surrounding the nail
  10. General anesthesia (aka anaesthesia) involves the absence of
    conciousness and sensibility to pain, temperature, and taste
  11. What are the agents included in a balanced anesthetic
    short-acting barbiturates for induction of anesthesia,

    neuromuscular blocking agents for muscle relaxation,

    opioids and nitrous oxide for analgesic,

    inhalation agents to maintain a state of unconsciousness.
  12. The primary goal of using multiple agents to achieve anesthesia is to
    permit full anesthesia with less adverse effects
  13. Inhalation anesthetics depress what and enhance what
    Depress transmission at excitatory synapses

    Enhance transmission at inhibitory synapses
  14. Nitrous Oxide has an extremely high minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). Because of this ...
    Surgical anesthesia cannot be obtained with nitrous oxide
  15. A pt has received succinylcholine during surgery. A priority nursing outcome during nursing care in the PACU is
    temperature will be 36.5 to 37 C
  16. The nurse should assess all post op pt who have received inhaled anesthesia for
  17. Desfluane adverse effect
    Tachycardia and hypertension can occur if blood levels drop suddenly
  18. Enflurane adverse effect
    can induce seizures
  19. Halothane adverse effect
    May prolong QT interval
  20. Isoflofluane adverse effect
    hypotension can occur from vasodilation
  21. Ketamine adverse effect
    Delirium and psychotic symptoms can occur post op or days or weeks after surgery
  22. Propofol adverse effect
    high risk of bacterial infection
  23. Sevoflurance adverse effect
    Can produce heart and fire in administration apparatus
  24. Nitrous oxide is widely used in surgery because
    it has significant analgesic effects without significant cardiac or respiratory depression
  25. The nurse is caring for a pt who has just received the first IV dose of pentazocine (talwin). Which of the following, if present within minutes of injecting the drug, would be a reason for the nurse to contact the prescriber immediately
  26. ACE inhibitors
    prevent conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
  27. Aldosterone
    Block angiotensin II receptors
  28. ARBs
    Prevent activation of angiotensin receptors
  29. Beta Blockers
    Suppress renin release by the kidneys