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______________ is the dominant division of plants on Earth today and in the geological past. The defining characteristic of this group is the presence of _____________
Tracheophyta; vascular tissue
The ____________ include all land plants except for the bryophytes.
All Tracheophytes have a ______________ (____) life history with a dominant __ ___________ generartion.
Diplobiontic (D+h); 2N sporophyte
In addition to having the same life history, all tracheophytes have ____________ and ____________
Distinctive vascular tissue; complex apical meristems
Xylem is used to transport _______ & _______; this tissue is typically found in the ________ of the stem
Water; dissolved minerals; middle
Phloem is used to transport _______ & _________; this tissue type is typically found inside the stem, lateral to the ________ and medial to the __________
Dissolved sugars; hormones; xylem; cortex
All Tracheophytes have vascular tissue with in their stems. Early Tracheophytes relied on a ______ type of tissue organization within their stem while more advanced tracheophytes relied on a ________ type of tissue organization.
A stem with a single central strand of vascular tissue (primary xylem, primary phloem, endodermis, cortex, and then the epidermis) is referred to as a ____________ stem.
A stem with a ring of seperate vascular strands (pith, primary xylem, vascular cambium, primary phloem, cortex, and then the endodermis) is referred to as a _________ stem.
List the various layers of tissue within a protostele stem starting from the very center and working your way out to the epidermis.
Primary xylem, primary phloem, endodermis, cortex, and then the epidermis
List the various layers of tissue within a siphonostele stem starting from the very center and working your way out to the epidermis.
Pith, primary xylem, vascular cambium, primary phloem, cortex, and then the endodermis
As tracheophytes became more evolutionarily advanced their leaves also became more advanced. The earliest tracheophytes had ______ leaves, then some groups developed _________ leaves, and finally the most advanced groups developed ________ leaves (these are most common today).
No leaves, microphyll leaves, megaphyll leaves
Before tracheophytes developed leaves the _____ was the primary photosynthetic organ.
What three genera discussed in lab had microphyll leaves?
Lycopodium, Selaginella, and Equistum
Which type of leaf has a single, central strand of vascular tissue?
What genera discussed in lab had no leaves and relied on its stem for photosynthesis?
What genera discussed in lab was the first to develop megaphyll leaves?
Pterophytina (true ferns)
What are the three different branching patterns seen in the various tracheophytes discussed in lab and lecture? List them in order of evolutionary sophistication starting with the most primitive.
Dichotomous, Monopodial, Sympodial
Why did plants with a dichotomous branching pattern have a major disadvantage when compared plants with a monopodial or sympodial branching pattern?
Plants with a dichotomous branching pattern grow out instead of up. Unlike plants with other branching patterns these plants end up being too top heavy for substantial vertical growth. Thus they are less able to compete for sunlight.
What is the difference between a sympodial and a monopodial branching pattern?
In a sympodial branching pattern branching is still one-to-one, but one branch is more important than the other. In a monopodial branching pattern all branching is subservient to the central stem/axis
What are the two different types of stem growth seen in the Tracheophytes?
Primary and secondary (woody) growth
In tracheophytes the location of the sporophyte sexual sporangia is either ______ or ________.
Plants with apical sporangia emphasize _________ over __________; while plants with lateral sporangia emphasize __________ over ____________.
Reproduction over vegetative growth; Vegetative growth over reproduction
In primitive tracheophytes the gametophyte generation is typically ________ in size and __________. In more advanced tracheophytes the gametophyte is typically ________ in size and ____________.
Large, free-living; small, a internal parasite on the sporophyte body
Another difference between primitive and advanced tracheophytes is the type of meiotic spores produced in sexual sporangia. Primitive tracheophytes were ___________. This means that their male and female sexual sporangia were roughly the same size. Advanced tracheophytes were ____________, meaning that their male and female sexual sporangia were not of equal size.
In heterosporous tracheophytes the male sporangia are ________ in size and referred to as ____________. The female sporangia are ________ in size and referred to as ______________.
Small, microspores; Large, megaspores
What are the three different types of embryonic tissues produced at the apical meristem? What does each differentiate into?
- Protoderm -------------------- epidermis
- Ground meristem --------------cortex
- Procambium -------------------xylem/phloem (primary)
Psilotum (common name ___________); is a primitive tracheophyte with a __________ type of tissue organization, a __________ branching pattern, __________ leaves, and _________ roots.
- Whisk fern
- no leaves; no roots (rhizome only)
What is the name of the unique of the sexual sporangia of Psilotum? What type of spores does it produce? Is Psilotum homosporous or heterosporous?
- Synangium (3 chambers)
- Haploid, thick-walled spores (by meiosis)
The gametophyte generation of Psilotum is ________ & __________. It grows out of the haploid spores produced by the sproophyte generation by mitosis. The gametophyte is _______ becasue it has both antheridia and archegonium. __________ sperm fertilize the egg within the archegonium which grows into the new sporophyte generation (no dispersal).
- Small, free-living
Lycopodium (common names; _________, ________, ____________) is a tracheophyte with a _________ type of tissue organization, ________ leaves, and __________ roots.
- Club moss, ground pine, princess pine
- Microphyll leaves
- Small, true vascular roots
The Lycopodium sexual sporangia are found on a terminal _________ made of modified leaves. Each sporangium on this structure is associated with a special protective leaf called a ___________. Is Lycopodium homosporous or heterosporous?
The Lycopodium gametophyte is ________, ________, & _________ (contains both male and female parts). After fertilization the sporophyte grows out of the mature gametophyte.
Selaginella (common name _________) is a tracheophyte with a _________ type of tissue organization, ________ leaves, and __________ roots. This plant is very much like Lycopodium in terms of structure, the main differences between the two plants are that Selaginella produces flattened leaves/stems and is ________________.
- The resurrection plant
- Small, true vascular roots
Selaginella gametophytes are the female _____________ by sperm from the male ___________. The male gametophyte produces sperm which fertilize the female gametophyte. The diploid sporophyte embryo begins development within the female gametophyte eventually emerging. This type of sexual process is referred to as ______________.
- Endosporic development
Isoetes (common name _________) is a submerged aquatic plant without a stem or rhizome. There is just an apical meristem that produces __________ and ________. Like Selaginella, Isoetes is ____________ and its gametophytes display ____________.
- Clusters of long microphyll leaves
- True roots
- Endosporic development
The only living genus of the subdivision Sphenophytina is ______________.
Equisetum (common name ________) has a ___________ stem consisting of sold _____ seperated by hollow ___________. The stem is ___________, does not ________, and the ribs are impregnated with bits of _________ to deter hungry herbivores.
- Scouring rush
- Vertically ribbed
Equisetum produces ________ leaves that are not ____________.
- NOT photosynthetic
Inside the stem of Equisetum there are three systems of vertically running canals and vascular tissue that occurs as a ring of seperate strands (__________ type of organization) associated with the smallest of the three canals (________ canals). Inside of the vascular tissue is the large ________ canal, and outside of the endodermis there are the medium sized _________ canals.
- Carinal canal
- Central canal
- Vallecular canal
Equisetum produces a _________ or ______ that is a modified stem apex composed of whorls of peg-like branches. Under each branch you can find the meiotic _________. Is Equisetum homosporous or heterosprous?
The Equisetum gametophytes are ________, have a _________ nurtitional mode, and are usually _______ (male or female). If the gametophye contains both male and female parts they mature at different times in order to prevent _____________.
The _______________ period is known as the "Age of Ferns" and the true ferns that we see today had their origins in ancesterol tree-like ferns (_____________). These had a ____________ branching patterns, a ____________ type of vascular tissue organization, and _________ leaves.
All true ferns belong to the class _____________. The sporophyte generation does not produce a ________, has a broad ____________, and extensive __________, and __________ roots. The major innovation of this group (compared to more primitive tracheophytes) was the development of ______________.
- Apical Meristem
- Small true roots
- Large, elaborate megaphyll leaves
Starting from the center and working your way out list the various types of tissue of a true fern.
- Phloem (again)
All seed plants an ferns produce leaves in a ________ pattern/_________.
A fern frond is one large megaphyll leaf with a central axis called a ________ and many lateral leaflets called ________. In some ferns these are divided into even smaller segments called _________. The tip of a young frond is rolled into a one-sided ball of smaller leaf components forming a structure called a ___________. This pattern of leaf development and asymmetric unrolling is called ________________.
- Circinate Vernation
The sporophyte generation of true ferns (subdivision ________) produces sporangia in clusters called ________ that are located on the leaf underside. The individual sporangia are on short ________ and covered by a flap of sterile tissue call a ____________. Are true ferns homosporous or heterosporous?
The fern gametophyte is called the ____________. It is ___________, _____-shaped, has a ___________ nutritional mode, and embedded male and female gametangia (________)
Primary growth increases the ________ of a plant while secondary growth increases the _________.
The apical meristem is the primary meristem found in all plants and is responsible for primary vertical growth. In some plants there are also two secondary meristems. What is the name of the two secondary meristems and what tissues do they produce?
Vascular cambium produces secondary phloem to the outside and secondary xylem to the inside
Cork cambium produces cork tissue to the outside and pheloderm to the inside
What type of tissue forms the woody component of plant stems that produce wood?
What type of secondary growth tissue produces bark?
The cork cambium produces pheloderm and cork and these tissue form the bark of trees.
Heterosporous tracheophytes retain the female _________ within the ___________ on the sporophyte plant. Before fertilization this entire structure is an ovule. Starting on the outside of the ovule and working your way to the center list the four different tissue types and their ploidy number.
- Megaspores; megasporangium
- Integuments ------------------------- diploid
- Megasporangium -------------------- diploid
- Megaspore (female gametophyte ---- haploid
- Archegonium w/ egg ---------------- haploid
An unfertilized seed can also be called a __________.
A seed is ___________ ___________ generation. It has a protective outer cover called a ___________, and an internal food supply called the ________ which is derived from the _______________.
- Embryonic sporophyte
- Seed coat
- Haploid female gametophyte tissue
What are two major advantages to having an internal food supply within a seed?
Seed has nutritional value so its more likely to be dispersed by animals
Food supply allows for periods of embryo dormancy
In heterosporous seed plants the male sporangium (also called the ____________) produces a tetrad of haploid _____________ by meiosis. These are retained in the sporangium where they undero two more mitotic divisions to produce a tetrad of ____________.
- Pollen grains
A major advantage that plants with pollen have is that they are not dependent on _______ for sexual reproduction.
Progymnosperms are ancestral to all seed plants and they had both ______ and _________.
T/F Ferns developed megaphyll leaves independently from gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Cycads (class __________) are one of the ___ groups of living gymnosperms. They have a __________ unbranched stem, frond-like _________ leaves, a very broad ____________, and are capable of _______ and ________ growth.
- Apical Meristem
Cycads have large frond-like megaphyll leaves that grow by __________ and in a __________ (just like ferns). These leaves have distinct ________ and _______ layers (which of these is photosynthetic). These types of leaves are adapted to dry habitats (________) and as a result they have a thick _______ & ________, and ________ sunken in pits.
- Circinate Vernation
- Spiral Phlotaxy
- Pallisade (photosynthetic)
Cycads have a _________ that grows very deep into arid soil to find groundwater.
Zamia is a _______ that has seperate male and female plants. Both the male and female produce cones that have many ______. On female plants this structure is also called a __________ and each one contains two _________. On male plants this strucutre is also called a __________ and each one has many ___________.
- Ovules (Megasporangium)
- Pollen sacs (Microsporangia)
In Zamia reproduction the male cone produces many pollen sacs that are located on individual __________. Each pollen sac consists of a chamber full of _________ that is lined by _______ tissue. The ___________ undergo meiosis to produce a tetrad of pollen grains. Each of these pollen grains has three cells (a ________ cell, a ________ cell, and a ________ cell).
- Microsporophylls (Scales)
- Pothallial cell, Generative cell, Tube cell
In Zamia reproductionthe female cone produces two ovules on each _____________. The __________ are found outside of the megasporangium which undergoes meiosis to produce 4 ___________, three of which degenerate. The viable ________ develops into the female gametophyte producing two ___________ with ______.
- Megasporophyll (Scale)
In the final stages of Zamia reproduction the female ovule produces a sugary droplet at the ____________ that serves to trap pollen. Once a pollen grain has been trapped the _________ digests its way through the _________ tissue of the ovule until it reachs the ________ and fertilizes the egg within it.
- Pollen tube
An embryonic sporophyte has three main regions. The _____________ develops into the embryo root, the ____________ develops into the apex of the embryo, and additionally there are two "seed leaves" called ____________.
The single living species of the class ginkgopsida is the species ____________. This gymnosperm grows into a woody tree that is very tolerant of ___________ and commonly seen on city ___________.
- Ginkgo bilobapollution
The Gingko tree has a __________ branching pattern and two types of branches. The ______________ form the main branches and elongate each year while the ___________ look like little pegs and while they don't elongate they hold all the leaves.
- Long shoots
- Spur shoots
The leaves of the Ginkgo tree are of the _________ variety and are ____________ (fusion of two blades). They have ________ venation that terminates in two vascular bundles within the ___________. The leaves and the entire of tip of the spur shoot are _________ annually.
The leaves of the Ginkgo tree are _________ (adapted to a dry habitat), have a thick ________/_________, a poorly developed _________ layer and a broad _______ layer.
The reproductive process of the Ginkgo is very long. During the first year _____ are produced on both the male and female trees. At the beginning of the second year the male tree produces ____________ and the female tree produces ______________. Shortly after this the male trees release lots of _________ and the female gametophyte develops on the female tree. At the end of the second year __________ and seed initiation occur. Finally in the summer of the third year mature ________ are produced and dispersed from the female tree.
The apical meristem of angiosperms has two distinct regions; the __________ which is located on the ________ of the stem (develops into the protoderm), and the ___________ which is located on the ________ of the stem (develops into the ground meristem.
- Outside of the tip (of the stem)
- Inside of the tip (of the stem)
The stem of angiosperms has a clear _____________ construction. In dicots the vascular bundles are arranged in a ______________ and there is ___ cortex and _____ pith. In monocots the vascular bundles are arranged in a _________ and there is ___ cortex and ___ pith.
- Complex manner
- No cortex; Lots of pith
- Both cortex and pith in roughly equal amounts
Name the two new cell types found in the xylem of angiosperms. What is the advantage of each type?
Vessel Elements; allow for the fast transport of larger quantities of water
Sclernchyma Fibers; increase the strength of the xylem
Why are hardwoods much stronger than the woods of conifers (pine)?
Hardwoods come from angiosperm trees and they have lots of sclernchyma fibers in their xylem which substantially increases their strength
T/F In angiosperms secondary growth is expressed only in monocots.
False; dicots are the ONLY angiosperms that express secondary growth.
T/F Vessel elements, tracheids, and sclerenchyma fibers are all living parts of a DICOT angiosperm.
False; all of these are dead at maturity
Angiosperm wood is composed primarily of what three cell types? Of these cell types which are found in gymnosperms?
Tracheids, vessel elements, and sclerenchyma fibers
Gymnosperms only have tracheids
T/F The leaves of angiosperms are always associated with a dormant lateral stem bud.
Similar to cycads and ferns, angiosperm leaves are arranged in a _______________. However, leaf development in angiosperms is _____________. Angiosperm leaves never develop by circinate vernation as the leaves of cycads and ferns do.
- Spiral phylotaxy
What are the three types of leaves found in angiosperms?
- Simple; one blade per petiole
- Compound; several leaflets per petiole
- Unifacial; base of the leaf surrounds the stem (has basal meristem)
Give an example of an angiosperm with a unifacial leaf.
T/F In a compound angiosperm leaf all of the leaflets associated with a single petiole have their own individual leaf bud.
False; there is only one leaf bud for all the leaflets associated with a single petiole.
________ have leaves with distinct pallisade and spongy layers with stomata on the lower surface. _______, on the other hand, have leaves that are almost entirely spongy and have stomata on both sides of the leaves (leaves stand erect)
Give three examples of leaf modifications found in angiosperms.
Tendrils of vines, spines, and all of the components of flowers
The roots of all angiosperms have a ___________ construction. _______ angiosperms tend to have ______ roots while _______ angiosperms tend to have either ________ or _________ roots.
- Dicots ----------- tap roots
- Monocots --------- fibrous OR adventitious roots
What are three types of modified roots that were discussed in class?
- Storage roots (carrot)
- Buttress roots (many trees; provide extra support)
- Aerial roots (mangroves; breathing in anaerobic soil/saltwater)
An angiosperm flower is a modified ___________ and all of its components represent _______________.
- Plant apex
- Modified leaves
When a flower is formed the apical meristem stops producing veg. leaves and produces ________ (#) ____________ of modified leaves.
Starting from the outside of the flower and working your way in give the name of each of the four whorls and what flower components each develops into.
- Calyx ---------------------------- sepals
- Corolla -------------------------- petals
- Male Androecium --------------- stamen
- Female Gymoecium ------------- carpels/pistil
In angiosperms the _________ are the male reproductive organs; these consist of a ______________ with _______________.
The _____________ are the female reproductive organs; these consist of a __________________ with ________________.
- Modified microsporophyll
- Modified megasporophyll
The two key components of the stamen are the _______ containing the pollen and the "stalk" or _________.
The three key components of the carpel are the _______ at the tip, the _________ through which the pollen tube elongates, and the __________ protecting the many _______ within it.
What are three things discussed in class account for the tremendous variation among flowers?
- Number of ovules per ovary
- Site of ovule attachment (PLACENTATION)
- Location of the ovary relative to the rest of the floral whorls
____________ is the ovary position where the ovary is attached above the male parts and petals (commonly seend in _________).
_________ is the ovary position where the base of the flower forms a cup and ovary is located within it (commonly seen in ____________ and ________)
_________ is the ovary position where the ovary is located below all the other parts (commonly seen in _________)
- Hypogynous (superior); beans
- Perigynous (superior); apples and blueberries
- Epigynous (inferior); melons
Usually all of the whorls of a flower show the same degree of multiplicity. In ___________ the whorls tend to occur in multiples of three. In __________ the whorls tend to occur in multiples of four or five.
______________ is the fusion of members within the same whorl (fused petals to make a "tube" flower. ____________ is the fusion of flower components from different whorls (stamens fused to petals or carpels)
A bisexual flower is called a ____________ flower.
A unisexual flower is called a __________ flower.
A flower with all four whorls is called ___________.
A flower missing 1 or more whorls is called ______.
A flower with one apical bud is called ___________.
A flower with multiple buds is called ____________.
________________ refers to the arrangement of flowers on an angiosperm. (Examples; spike, raceme, spadix, head, umbel, cyme, paicle, corymb)
In angiosperm sexual reproduction the pollen tube reaches the female gametophyte inside the ovule and then the male ______________ undergoes mitosis to produce two male nuclei (_________). One of these fertilizes the _______ and the other fertilizes the __________. This is known as ____________ and is unique to angiosperms.
- Generative cell
- DOUBLE FERTILIZATION
What is unique about the endosperm of angiosperms post-fertilization compared to all the cells we have discussed in class so far?
It is the only 3N/triploid cell we have seen so far.
A fruit is a ______________ that surrounds seeds and are typically involved in _________ as a result of their morphology. The actual tissue of the a fruit is referred to as the ___________.