Health Essentials Exam 1

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  1. Nursing theory, research, and practice are
  2. Florence Nigthingale
    Saw nurding as an art and science. Supported education. Said the environment directly affects one's health. Cleanliness, Light, Pure air and water.
  3. Hildergard Peplau
    Defined the nurse-client relationship. Stranger, Resource person, Teacher Leader Surrogate, and Counselor
  4. Virginia Henderson
    Defined nursing as assisting a person in the performance of acitivites that will contribute to health or a peacful death. Stressed independence of client
  5. Myra Levine
    Conservation theory- Energy, Structural Intergrity, Personal Intergrity, and Social Integrity.
  6. Dorothea Orem
    I am Nursing. Looked at action by the nurse client and family and said those things are integrated together. Important that the patients do what they can on their own.
  7. Berry Neuman
    Stressors- Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Extrapersonal
  8. Intrapersonal
    stresses within (fear of flying)
  9. Interpersonal
    Between 2 individuals (getting into with someone)
  10. Extrapersonal
    Outside the individual (raining)
  11. Madeline Leininger
    Culrture care and culture belief. Accomodation or negotiation (We respect cultural beliefs).
  12. Sister Calista Roy
    Aaptation model- Nursing attempts to alter the environment when the person in not adapting well (i.e. if patient has a problem getting out of the bed, get them a walker). Use of coping systems-Nursing attempts to assist hte client in coping mechanisms.
  13. Jean Eatson
    Human caring. Care and love are the basis for humanity.
  14. Martha Rogers
    • Unitary human beings
    • Nursing as an art and science. Energy fields. Looked at humans as structures that cannot ve seperated into pieces.
  15. National Patient Safety Goals
    • Improve accuracy of client identification
    • Reduce risk of health care associated infection
    • Improve effectiveness of communication
    • Improve safety of usig high-alert med
    • Prevent errors in surgery
    • Improve safety of infusion pumps
    • Effectiveness of clinical alarm systems
    • Reduce the risk of patient harm resulting form falls
  16. Client behavior accident
    Burns/poisonings, Self inflicted cuts
  17. Therapeutic procedure accidents
    • Medication errors
    • Client transfer falls
    • Contamination
  18. Equipment
    • Fire
    • Electrocution
    • Osygen Tank
  19. Resident flora
    Always there. Hands washing alone will not get rid of it. Must use friction by rubbing the hands and scrubbing the nails.
  20. Tranisient flora
    Brief can get rid of with hand-washing.
  21. Biological Agents
    Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, Rickettsia
  22. Chemical agents
    Pesticides, food additives, medications, and industrial chemicals
  23. Physical agents
    Machine, heat, light, noise, radiation, and machinery
  24. Susceptible host
    Person whol lacks resistance to an agent and is vulnerable to disease
  25. Compromised host- a person whose normal defenxe mechanims are impaired and is susceptivle to infection
  26. Modes of transmission
    • Contact
    • Airborne
    • Vehicle
    • Vectorborn
  27. Contact transmission
    Sexually transmitted diseases
  28. Airborne transmission
    Host contacts droplet nuclei or dust particles suspended in the air
  29. Vehicle transmission
    Contaminated inanimate objects such as water, food, drugs and blood
  30. Vector-borne transmission
    mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, lice and other animals
  31. Stages of infection
    • Incubation
    • Prodromal
    • Illness
    • Convalescent
  32. Incubation
    Time interval between entry of an infectious agent in the host and the onset of symptoms.
  33. Prodromal stage
    Non specific symptoms
  34. Illness
    Specific Systems
  35. Convalescent stage
    Disappearance of acute symptoms until the client returns to the previous state of health
  36. Emerging Infections- Don't know where they are at or going
    • SARS
    • Hepatitis
    • West Nile Virus/Hantavirus
    • Viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola)
    • HIV
  37. Nosocomial Infections (most common infection sites greatest to least)
    • GI
    • Urinary
    • Skin
    • Lower Respiratory
    • Conjunctiva
  38. Assesing client in inpatient setting
    • Fall risk every shift
    • Infection (local or systemic)
  39. Assesing client in home
    • Knowledge
    • Asses prior to patient's discharge
  40. Magic number for leukocytes
  41. Neutrophils
    Increase in acute sever infection (bacterial)
  42. Lymphocytes
    Increase in chronic bacterial infections
  43. Monocytes
    increased in protozoan and rickettsial infections and tuberculosis
  44. Eosinophils and basophils
    Unaltered in an infectious process
  45. Erthrocytes Sedimentation rate (ESR)
    Elevated in infection
  46. pH in urine, gastric or vaginal secretion
    Elevated in infection
  47. Three things to minimize to reduce exposure to radiation.
    Time, distance, and shielding
  48. Medical asepsis
    infection control practice used to reduce number, growth and spread of microorganisms.
  49. Examples of medical asepsis
    Gloves, changing linens daily, cleaning floors, hospital furniture and hand hygiene
  50. Surgical asepsis
    Eliminates microorganisms and spores
  51. Examples of surgical asepsis
    Sterile technique, donning sterile gloves,donning surgical attire, surgical hand antisepis, gowning and closed gloving
  52. Standard precautions
    • Gloves
    • Gown
    • Protective Eyewear
    • Hand Hygiene
  53. Contact precautions
    • In addition to standard
    • Gloves
    • Gowns
    • Disposable equipmemt
  54. Perform areas with contaminated areas when?
  55. Droplet Precaution
    • In addtion to standard
    • Eye protection
    • Fluid resistant procedure mask
  56. Airborne Precaution
    • Keep door closed
    • N95 respirator mask
  57. When to use contact precaution
    MRSA, VRE, C.difficile, major wounds with significant damage
  58. When to use airborne precaution
    Tuberculosis,measles,chickenpox, disseminated herpes zoster
  59. When to use droplet precaution
    Influenza, respiratory MRSA,rubella, meningoccocal meningitis, mumps, pertussis
  60. Evaluation
    • Client is free injury
    • Client is free from
    • Self-care needs are met
  61. When to take vital sighns
    • Upon admission
    • Every few hours
    • Anytime there is a change in the patients condition
    • Before procedures (compare when they return)
    • Prior to discharge
  62. How often you take vital signs for med surge?
    Every 8hrs
  63. How often do you take vital signs for ICU?
    Every hour
  64. How often do you take vital signs for Progressive care?
    Every 4 hours
  65. How often do you take vital signs for Hospice?
    May not take them
  66. Normal adult value for oral temperature?
    98.6 F
  67. Normal adult value for axillary?
    97.6 F
  68. Normal adult value for rectal(most accurate)?
    99.6 F
  69. When shouldn't you take a rectal temperature?
    • Patient at risk for perforation
    • Patients who have extremely slow heart rate because it stimulates vegus nerves and can slow the heart rate
  70. Meatabolic heat production
    • Metabolism
    • Shivering (body's own mechanism)
    • Excessive muscle activity
    • Fever
    • Thyroxine production
  71. Heatloss
    • Radiation
    • Conduction
    • Convection
    • Evaporation
  72. Conduction
    Loss of heat to object in contact with the body
  73. Convection
    Using Air
  74. Normal respirations
    12-20 breaths per minute
  75. When do you check the carotid pulse?
    During cardiac arest, shock, blood pressure very low
  76. How long do you check the apical pulse?
    1 minute
  77. If apical pulse is larger than radial, what may be the problem?
    Circulation problem, the heart is not pumping efficient enough to reach extremeties
  78. What two pulses should you find in every patients besides the normal pulse?
    Posterior tibial and Dorsalis Pedis
  79. Stroke volume
    measure of blood that enters the aorta with each ventricular contractiondiac output
  80. Cardiac output
    volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
  81. Cardiac out put for men?
  82. Cardiac output for women?
  83. Systole
  84. Diastole
    Repolarization- Most important heart not resting doesn't get oxygen and doesn't allow blood to flow to tissues
  85. Pulse pressure equals
    • Systole/Diastole
    • 120/80= 40
  86. Orthostatic Blood pressure
    • Lay flat, take BP
    • -Wait 5 minutes
    • Sit, take BP
    • -Wait 5 minutes
    • Stand up, take BP
Card Set
Health Essentials Exam 1
The history,Vital signs
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