In a Gram stain what bacteria stain purple or dark blue?
In a Gram stain what bacteria stain pink to read?
What stain can be used to differentiate acid-fast bacilli?
Carpal fuchsin stain can be used and then decolorize with ethyln alcohol and hydrochloric acid
What is the difference between aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria?
Aerobes are bacteria that must have oxygen to live and replicate, other bacteria are able to live and multiply without oxygen, These are known as anaerobes.
What is the order of a Gram stain?
After preparing the slide and heat fixing flood smear with crystal violet solution and let stand for 1 min. rinse gently with tapwater then flooded with Grams decolorizing for 5 to 10 seconds wash gently with tapwater then flood smear with safranin counterstain for 30 to 60 seconds Wash gently with tap water blot dry and examine under oil immersion
What can be done to test the susceptibility of an organism to a specific antimicrobial drug?
The disc susceptibility test is used in small laboratories also the Kirby Bauer procedure is commonly used in many laboratories
What consist of disc a susceptibility test?
An agar plate with a standard amount of cultured organism is used. A paper disks impregnated with various antimicrobial drugs are placed within the agar plate. incubation is carried out along with the measurement of the zones of inhibition
True or false: antimicrobial drugs can be given outside of the full therapeutic dose
Antimicrobial drugs should be administered in full therapeutic doses
Is penicillin G benzathine approved for use in dairy animals
penicillin G benzathine is long acting (48) hours and is not approved for use in dairy animals
where is absorption of most orally administered penicillins taken place?
absorption of most orally administered penicillin's takes place in the stomach and small intestine i.e. the duodenum
what organ is the primary excretion of penicillins?
the kidneys are the primary organs for excretion of penicillins, although the liver metabolizes other penicillins
true or false penicillin's can be excreted through the cow's milk
Withdrawal times for dairy cows must be adhered too because penicillin is excreted through the milk
What is the pharmacodynamics of penicillin?
The enzyme called penicillin binding proteins are involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division when this binding occurs it increases internal osmotic pressure and ruptures to cell
What is Beta lactamases or penicillinace?
Some bacteria produce beta lactamase or penicillinase which increases the resistance of bacteria by converting penicillin to inactive penicillin acid
What bacteria are most susceptible to penicillin?
Graham positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane around the cell wall that limits penicillin binding proteins permeability
What kind of drug is amoxicillin?
What kind of drug is ampicillin?
What kind of drug is clavamox and what two drugs compose it?
clavamox is a penicillin and the two drugs are amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium
Where are cephalosporins primarily used?
Small animal medicine this group of drugs is classified into generations, according to spectrum of activity
How should cephalosporins be administered?
Most cephalosporins are administered paraenterally because they lack the ability to be well absorbed by the GI track, once absorbed, cephalosporins are distributed to tissues and fluids with the exception of the central nervous system
How are cephalosporins metabolized?
Metabolism occurs in the liver with elimination occurring in the kidneys by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion into the urine. with a few exceptions cephalosporins are excreted through the feces via the biliary system
What is the pharmacodynamics of cephalosporins?
similar to penicillin cephalosporins interfere with cell wall synthesis by binding to the bacterial enzymes . Another similarity between cephalosporins and penicillins is the susceptibility of cephalosporins to beta-lactamase or cephalosporinace which can be produced by certain bacteria. some cephalosporins are more effective in treating individuals with infection caused by bacteria that produce beta lactamase II
What kind of drug is naxcel and what is it approved for?
naxcel is approved for use in lactating dairy animals and is a cephalosporin
What is the clinical use for cephalosporins?
Cephalosporins are used to treat cystitis, skin, and soft tissue infections in dogs and cats, bovine mastitis, shipping fever and other respiratory infections and cattle, horses, sheep, and swine